"No More War," Feb 15 & March 29 Peace Marches, and March 16th Marblehead Peace Vigil
David "Honeyboy" Edwards

A Brief Forward -- July 11, 2003
This web-page is a kind of diary, and reflects my deep concerns, thoughts, and feelings regarding war and its social, ecological and economic consequences. It begins in February, with the massive worldwide peace demonstrations carried out by women, children and men -- globally -- the largest grass roots antiwar movement ever recorded -- a spontaneous uprising by the people on the Eve of War when the United States was preparing to bomb and invade Iraq for the purpose of deposing Hussein and his tyrranical regime, and to remove his "weapons of mass destruction".  It is a compelling diary, with many significant articles and essays, and photos either taken by my husband, Mark Fisher, when we attended antiwar demonstrations, and including images I collected from numerous journalist sources. I worked on this web-page daily up until April 15th, when I needed to take a break from this war and all its horror and misery. The innocent children, mothers, students and families of Iraq, however, cannot "take a break".  Every day, we hear of more civilian casualties and small numbers of coalition soldiers killed.  When is war ever "over"?  Maryclaire Wellinger.

On the Eve of War
Sunday, March 16th, 2003
Marblehead, Massachusetts Peace Vigil
Over 100 people gathered at the Old Town House in Market Square to hold a Silent Vigil for Peace on the Eve of our nation's going to war against Iraq. The silent vigil has its own special power, expressing   with candelight and deep silence more than words can express. These photos were taken by Mark Fisher and forwarded to the organization. I took a photo  of Rachel Corrie, and placed it above some candles on the steps. Rachel was a 23-year-old American student at the Evergreen College in Olympia, Washington and a peace activist who was was killed earlier in the day (see "In Memoriam" below). We gathered in silence and as our numbers grew, the moon rose in the sky above us.

Under candelight and moonlight
by the Town House steps


The Old Town House
with Shaft of Light


Gathering Close to the Old Town House
People began to collect at 7 pm. Our numbers
increased during the next two hours
until we were over 100 strong.


All photos by Mark J. Fisher

March 16th, 2003
Our mood was serious and thoughtful; yet it was comforting to gather together on this beautiful moonlit evening.  Together, we were bearing witness.  
There was a feeling of  strength generated by this  action, a strength to counter our individual feelings of helplessness in preventing the Bush war machine from unleashing horrific destruction against the people of Iraq.
Our peace vigils will continue.
Not in our name -- we are the people and the people have the power . . .
warmest regards to all, and peace,
Maryclaire Wellinger
Iraqui man weeping at the death of his wife
and three children killed by U.S. bombing
This photo was posted March 31st,  14 days after Mark
wrote his poem  "Who mourns  for war?", printed below.
Basra Resident weeping at the death
of his wife and children during bombing

On War


Who mourns for war?

 The governments call to arms appears to meet the nodding approval of leaders and average citizens across the country.  


Yet all their arguments and speeches are meaningless when the only accompanying sound that matters most is suppressed. 


Justified or not, war is always something to weep about. Anyone who supports war without empathy for the victims of war is a coward. No one can regretfully support a war.


The television screens are filled with politicians, generals, and entertainers who mistake

cameras for mirrors, cry for war  without shedding a tear.  

 No one mourns for war. 


Mark Fisher

March 17, 2003






In Memoriam

In Memoriam
Rachel Corrie (1980-2003)
Artist and Peace Activist
Student at Evergreen College
Olympia Washington
Killed on Sunday, March 16, 2003
at the age of 23
by an Israeli Army Bulldozer
Rachel was defending the home of a Palestinian doctor and his family whose house was targeted for destruction.  The bulldozer driver refused to stop and Rachel was crushed. She was a true peacemaker and died for her convictions. To learn more about Rachel's activities for promoting peace, see the last four articles at the end of this webpage.
See "Links to Antiwar Orgs"  Below

Partners In Kindness, founder Steven Greenbaum of New Jersey in response to the death of his wife by a terrorist bomb in Israel. Encourages a culture of loving-kindness. Greenbaum believes that ordinary citizens can destroy terrorism through extraordinary acts of goodness.

PeaceWomen Project monitors and works toward implementation of U.N. Security Council Resolution 1325 on women, peace and security. This website provides information on women, peace & security issues and women's peace-building initiatives in areas of armed conflict globally.

Women's International League for Peace and Freedom. Founded in 1915, The Hague.


On the  tenth day of War On Iraq
Saturday, March 29th
"No Blood for Oil!" 
 Boston Common Peace March
75,000 and more strong . . . men, women, children & students say "NO" to Bush War Machine on a warm Saturday afternoon
Boston is the cradle of liberty!
People Have the Power!


Veterans Against the War
Viet Nam Veterans and their Families
gather on the Boston Common
for the March Against War on Iraq


These Veteran Warriors of Peace Marches
 Have the Best Flag


Homemade Signs
The Spontaneity and  Sincerity of Feeling
is shown by the homemade signs people
make and carry with them . . .
a Truly Grass Roots  Peace Movement
No one group or person or ideology
dominates this worldwide movement.


Drop Bush Not Bombs!
" What do we want? ")
(We want) "Books Not Bombs!"





a march organizer consults with Boston cops  . . .
below:  mock funeral for Iraquis killed by bombing


The Mock Funeral of Iraqui People
Killed by the Bombings
Took Place Along the Length of
Commonwealth Avenue . . .
Three different groups marched
in procession to converge
on the Boston Common



Asses of Evil:
Bush, Cheney, Powell & Rice
All photos by Mark Fisher
March 29, 2003 

Two Views of the Boston, Mass Peace March, Saturday, March 29, 2003

BOSTON, MARCH 29, 2003


An Italian soldier next to the barracks in Nassiriya destroyed by a suicide bomb attack yesterday. At least 18 Italians and eight Iraqis were killed
An Italian soldier next to the barracks in Nassiriya destroyed by a suicide bomb attack. At least 18 Italians and eight Iraqis were killed. Photograph: Anja Niedringhaus/AP
On Day 243 of the War, November 12 2003
A suspected car bomb on an Italian military police base in the southern town of Nassiriya kills at least 14 Italian officers and eight Iraqis. Until now, no Italian military personnel had been killed in combat in Iraq.
22 killed in Iraq blast
Il Giornale
Editorial, Italy, November 13

"Italy has received a loud and clear message... We are no longer the darlings... of the Arab and Muslim world as we used to be when the Italian government distinguished itself from the other western governments with their sly, oily, doublebluff policies. Today going on a peace mission means going to war...

Italian soldier's last letter home
Two months before carabinieri sergeant Alfio Ragazzi, 39, was killed in Wednesday's suicide attack in Nasiriya, he sent a letter home describing life in Iraq for Italian soldiers.

The letter below was published in Italian newspaper Corriere della Sera on Thursday.

Dear family,

Two months have passed since I left our country, and even though there are thousands of kilometres between us, I can constantly feel your thoughts and Granny's prayers for me.

Things are quite OK here, despite the fact that journalists do their best to make our loved ones back home worry, and the news bulletins yell out the news.

Alfio Ragazzi with Iraqi children (picture: Enrico di Giacomo)
Alfio Ragazzi with Iraqi children (picture: Enrico di Giacomo)
We always receive communiqués of the terror attacks that take place in the North, and sometimes the alert level is raised here, too.

But being true Italians, and with our 'football-spaghetti' policy, we have immediately managed to win everybody over: wherever we go, we are met with sympathy and esteem.

'Italy good', say the Mau Mau [sic], but it is the children in particular who go crazy when they spot our blue cars. They run after us and shout 'mister water' or 'mister food', which has become our trademark.

On a practical level, my squad and I have started a humanitarian aid campaign. We supply hospitals - mainly children's hospitals, which are in a pitiful state - with various goods and medicines.

When we leave Nasiriya to go on a mission, we often come across isolated villages where everything seems to have stopped at the time of the Sumerians.

Houses built with a mix of mud and straw; ovens made with hollow pottery where dung is used as fuel; bread made with flour ground by hand and food they gather after walking for several hours.

Time goes by and the days before we can meet again are fewer and fewer and go by increasingly faster
They drink water from the river and eat meat on special days.

The difference with our western civilization is unbelievable and difficult to understand unless you experience it first hand.

Apart from the outside world, life at the camp is perfectly Italian: lots of pasta and no shortage of bottled water, apart from some occasions when we celebrate K-day and eat combat lunch packs.

All considered, after the initial period of acclimatisation (which was really hard), things are becoming more normal.

We sleep in a bed, wash ourselves every day, we have a laundry service and eat at a canteen.

In short, time goes by and the days before we can meet again are fewer and fewer and go by increasingly faster.

I urge you not to worry too much.

A big hug and see you soon.

Yours, Alfio

On Day 242 of the War, November 11 2003
Head of the US coalition, Paul Bremer, is summoned to Washington for high level talks amid growing unease at the lack of progress in Iraq and the mounting human and financial cost. The visit prompts speculation that the US is trying to speed up the transfer of power.
Bremer flies to US for crisis talks

On Day 238 of the War, November 7 2003
Six US soldiers are killed when their Black Hawk helicopter crashes in central Iraq, apparently after being hit by a rocket-propelled grenade. It is the third time in two weeks that Iraqi fighters have brought down a US military helicopter.
Six US soldiers die in helicopter attack

On Day 237 of the War, November 6 2003
Several US papers report that, in the weeks before its fall, Iraq's Ba'athist regime made a series of increasingly desperate peace offers to Washington, promising to hold elections and even allow US troops to search for banned weapons.
Saddam's desperate offers to stave off  war


November 6th Message to Iraq

Food, music, letters and video prepared for Navajo Soldiers By Marley Shebala, The Navajo Times

WINDOW ROCKNavajo voices, food, faces, drawings, letters and music are headed to Baghdad, Iraq, today.

Navajo Nation Legislative Office staff assistant Leila Help-Tulley said on Wednesday that she and other Legislative Branch employees have been working late into the evenings to meet the Nov. 6 deadline for a Navajo care package for Navajo troops and other military personnel to enjoy by Nov. 20.

It takes about two weeks for mail to reach troops stationed in Iraq.

Help-Tulley said President George Bush designated Nov. 20 as the day for the "Native American Heritage Celebration" for military troops and personnel.

November is National Native American Month and this years theme is "Nations Within a Nation."

Help-Tulley said the idea for a message from home for the Navajo troops started with her brother-in-law, Julius Tulley.

Earl Tulley, who is Julius Tulleys older brother and married to Leila Help-Tulley, remembered on Wednesday that his brother went to Blanding, Utah, for his usual weekend military exercises for the Army Reserves in November 2001.

He said Julius Tulley never came home.

Earl Tulley said his brother and the rest of his company, which consisted of 30 other Navajos, were ordered to remain in Blanding until they were deployed to Iraq a few days later.Help-Tulley said that when Julius Tulley was deployed to Iraq on Nov. 26, 2001, her husband and she naturally kept in contact with Julius and his company.

Their latest contact with Julius was an email about a week ago, who wrote about the shooting down of an U.S. Army Chinook helicopter that killed 15 American soldiers and wounded 21.

"The attacks have definitely increased," stated Julius. "The enemy is now using sophisticated Iraq/Russian made anti-weapons more than ever before."He added, "Just a day before this tragic event, my platoon was attacked by four RPGs than landed about 150 yards in front of us. However, we were protected by ten-foot wall."The attacks dont really bother me anymore. Maybe its because it happens so often. I know Heavenly Father is mindful of me each and everyday.

"And of course this has to do a lot with your prayers for me. Thank you. Please tell my loved ones and supporters that their prayers are being answered here. Keep the faith and always be worthy of your blessings."

Help-Tulley said that Julius in earlier emails informed them about the Nov. 20 Native American Heritage Celebration that was being planned and who to contact about getting involved.

She said Navajo Broadcast Services NNTV-5 started working with them on taping messages of support and encouragement from Council Speaker Lawrence Morgan and several council delegates.

Help-Tulley said the legislative staff also contacted Navajo entertainers to provide some "rez" music on the video, which will be 40 minutes. She said students from Tse Ho Tso Middle School in Ft. Defiance and Ft. Wingate Community School asked to send letters and drawings to the troops for the Heritage Celebration.

A message board has also been created for people and family members to post messages for their loved ones and service people stationed in Iraq and other places overseas, said Help-Tulley. She said the video, letters and drawings, message board and food will be shared in Baghdad with all the troops and others to see on Nov. 20.

Enough traditional Navajo foods, such as nitsid digoohi (kneel-down corn bread) and Navajo tea, is being sent for Navajo soldiers and other service people to sample, said Help-Tulley.

She noted that the nitsid digoohi has to be dried before it was wrapped for mailing. Earl Tulley said other Navajo families tried to send nitsid digoohi and it molded before it reached their family member in Iraq.

He explained that nitsid digoohi and Navajo tea wee sent to Iraq because "its soul food." Earl added, "Its a familiar taste for Navajos. Home is so far away from them (Navajo service people). Particular smells, taste carry them back home. Thats the significance.

"Also corn is the staple diet of Navajos. We use it to prayer with and sustain and nourishment ourselves physically and spiritually. We wanted to recognize that."

He remembered that it was just a year ago that his younger brother was working as a staff assistant for then President Kelsey Begaye.

Earl said, "I love the soldier and hate the war. I do not agree with what lead up to this particular event, the war, but I understand and support that he (Julius) committed himself to a commander-in-chief and he (Julius) has to fulfill his mission. That sums it up - love the warrior and despise the conflict."

The 40-minute message from home will be aired on NNTV-5 on Nov. 10, Monday, at noon and 5:30

(below) Navajo Corn Maiden

On Day 235 of the War
Tuesday, November 4, 2003
Blasts hit Baghdad's 'Green Zone'

An Iraqi boy pedals past the remains of a U.S. military vehicle destroyed in a rocket attack on the outskirts of Baghdad Sunday evening.

Bomb explodes at Karbala hotel; 1 U.S. soldier killed in Tikrit

Tuesday, November 4, 2003 Posted: 2:43 AM EST (0743 GMT)

BAGHDAD, Iraq (CNN) -- Three rockets or mortar rounds exploded Monday night in the highly secure "Green Zone" of the Iraqi capital that houses the U.S.-led coalition's headquarters, a coalition spokesman said.

The explosions came a day after a U.S. Army transport helicopter crashed in a suspected missile strike, killing 16 soldiers and wounding 20 others.

One round hit a camp of the 2nd Armored Cavalry Regiment and two others struck areas near central Baghdad, all around 9 p.m. (1 p.m. EST), according to a Coalition Provisional Authority statement.

No damage or injuries were reported. The spokesman said an explosives disposal team was trying to determine whether rockets or mortar fire caused the explosions.

The area has been the target of previous mortar attacks. The Al-Rashid Hotel, which houses coalition military and civilian officials, was targeted in an October 26 rocket strike that killed a U.S. Army officer.

The violence continued Monday night, as a car bomb exploded in front of the Al-Barate hotel in the Shiite Muslim holy city of Karbala, about 90 kilometers (55 miles) south of Baghdad, a U.S. military spokesman said.

A coalition official Tuesday told CNN that the explosion killed one Iraqi and wounded five others.

The hotel is directly behind the Mukhaya mosque, where members of a militia -- formed by radical Shiite cleric Muqtada al-Sadr -- called Mahdi's Army are holed up. There was some damage to the mosque, but most of the damage was to the hotel, which was vacant at the time.

No coalition forces were in the area at the time of the explosion, the official said. Iraqi police are investigating and coalition troops are providing security around the blast site.

Witnesses said the bomb blew up near a generator at the hotel, wounding more than 10 people.

North of Baghdad, a 4th Infantry Division soldier was killed Monday afternoon when his vehicle hit a mine in Tikrit, Saddam Hussein's ancestral homeland, a U.S. military spokesman said.

Outside the town of Uja, a 4th Infantry Division patrol came under attack by small arms fire Monday evening, the spokesman said. No casualties were reported.

The 4th Infantry said it arrested nine people and seized 15 guns, 16 grenades, three unidentified missiles and four makeshift bombs in raids in northern Iraq.

The latest violence came as 16 of 20 U.S. soldiers injured in Sunday's helicopter crash west of Baghdad arrived at Ramstein Air Base in Germany early Monday and were taken to nearby Landstuhl Regional Medical Center.

All were reported in stable condition, but 11 were being treated and evaluated in the hospital's intensive care unit, said Lndstuhl's commander, Col. Rhonda Cornum.

"As with any airplane accident, [there are] a lot of broken bones, a lot of compressions, loss of consciousness from being knocked around, some head injuries -- that sort of thing," Cornum said.

The CH-47 Chinook crash and the deaths of another U.S. soldier in a Baghdad bombing and two civilian contractors in an attack near Fallujah made Sunday the deadliest day for Americans in Iraq since President Bush declared an end to major combat on May 1.

Witnesses reported seeing missile trails when the twin-engine transport helicopter went down, a U.S. military spokesman said, but the official cause was under investigation. A second helicopter was flying with it but was unscathed.

In a Monday speech largely about the nation's economy, Bush made no direct reference to the crash victims. But he did vow to continue the U.S. mission in Iraq. (Full story)

His comments followed a White House statement Sunday that mourned the soldiers' deaths and said American resolve was unshakable.

Senate Approves $87 Billion For Iraq
Bush Gets Package Largely as Requested

By Helen Dewar
Washington Post Staff Writer
Tuesday, November 4, 2003; Page A01

The Senate gave final congressional approval yesterday to an $87.5 billion spending package for military and reconstruction operations in Iraq and Afghanistan, giving President Bush nearly all he wanted despite some lawmakers' earlier demands for changes.

The bill, one of the largest military and foreign aid spending measures in U.S. history, will go to the president for his signature. The House had approved it, 298 to 121, early Friday.

3 Blasts Seem Aimed at U.S. Compound


Published: November 5, 2003

BAGHDAD, Iraq, Nov. 4 Three powerful explosions in rapid succession shook central Baghdad on Tuesday evening in what apparently was a mortar attack on the headquarters of the American civilian authorities here.

Iraqi witnesses standing near the gates said the explosions hit the sprawling, walled-in American compound about 7:45 p.m.

A spokeswoman for American military said Tuesday night that four people had been wounded, but she gave no details.

The witnesses said the mortar shells had come from a neighborhood north of the American headquarters and landed inside.

"I looked up and saw trails of white light, and then they exploded inside there," said Muhammad al-Mayehi, an Iraqi, pointing toward the offices of L. Paul Bremer III, the chief civilian administrator, and his staff.

The explosions, which rattled buildings on both sides of the Tigris River, added to a growing sense of insecurity in the capital and in central Iraq, where guerrillas fighting the American occupation have recently carried out a number of spectacular attacks.

The explosions followed the deaths of at least 15 American soldiers on Sunday, when their helicopter was shot down by a surface-to-air missile over the town of Falluja. (Early reports from the military indicated that 16 had been killed, but the Department of Defense is now confirming only 15.) Last week, suicide bombers struck targets across the capital, killing 34 people.

Casualties as of  November 4, 2003
Iraqui civilian casualties are estimated from a minimum of  7,792 to a maximum 9,605.

And over 1,500 violent civilian deaths have occurred in occupied Baghdad.

The first definitive total of violent civilian deaths in Baghdad since mid April has been published by Iraq Body Count (IBC), an Anglo-American research group tracking media-reported civilian deaths occuring as a consequence of the US/UK military intervention in Iraq.

From April 14th to 31st August, 2,846 violent deaths were recorded by the Baghdad city morgue. When corrected for pre-war death rates in the city a total of at least 1,519 excess violent deaths in Baghdad emerges from reports based on the morgue's records.

The cost of occupation has taken a terrible toll on American and Coalition  troops.  (See

As of Tuesday, Nov. 4, 2003

There have been 435 confirmed coalition deaths, 383 Americans in the war as of November 4, 2003. 383 U.S. service members have died since the beginning of military operations in Iraq, according to the Department of Defense. But the number of U.S. wounded since May 1st is 1,242, more than double the 551 injured during the war.

The British military has reported 52 deaths; Denmark, Spain and Ukraine reported one each.

American Casualties in Iraq as of September 21, 2003
In Combat
Deaths since 5/01/03 (the list)
Deaths since war began
Total Wounded
Source: DOD and CentCom    
Iraqi Body Count
Other Coalition Troops

Iraq Timeline
On Day 234 of the War, November 3, 2003
The Pentagon is quietly moving to fill draft board vacancies nationwide. While officials say there's no cause to worry, some experts aren't so sure.
By Dave Lindorff, Colunnist,

Nov. 3, 2003  |  The community draft boards that became notorious for sending reluctant young men off to Vietnam have languished sinced the early 1970s, their membership ebbing and their purpose all but lost when the draft was ended. But a few weeks ago, on an obscure federal Web site devoted to the war on terrorism, the Bush administration quietly began a public campaign to bring the draft boards back to life. Especially for those who were of age to fight in the Vietnam, it is an ominous flashback of a message. Even floating the idea of a draft in the months before an election would be politically explosive, and the Pentagon last week was adamant that the push to staff up the draft boards is not a portent of things to come. Increasingly, however, military experts and even some influential members of Congress are suggesting that if Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld's prediction of a "long, hard slog" in Iraq and Afghanistan proves accurate, the U.S. may have no choice but to consider a draft to fully staff the nation's military in a time of global instability. 

Check out the governmnnt's new draft board website on:.

Iraq Timeline

On Day 233, November 2 2003
Sixteen US soldiers are killed after their Chinook helicopter is struck six miles south of Falluja in the deadliest attack against the occupying powers since the US declared major combat to be over.
16 die in attack on US helicopter

On Day 227, October 27 2003
Thirty-five people are killed in attacks in Baghdad on its bloodiest day since the fall of Saddam. A suicide bomber rams an explosive-laden ambulance into barriers outside the Red Cross headquarters and three police stations are attacked.
35 killed and 224 injured in Baghdad bomb attacks

On Day 226, October 26 2003
Iraqi resistance fighters fire a rocket salvo at the Rashid hotel in Baghdad, narrowly missing Paul Wolfowitz, the US deputy defence secretary. An American colonel is killed and 18 people wounded.
US hawk escapes Baghdad rocket attack

On Day 224, October 24 2003
Last-minute pledges from Arab states and Japan gave a major boost to Iraq's reconstruction funds as governments opposed to the US-led invasion began to soften their positions.
Arabs and Japan pledge reconstruction cash

On Day 222, October 23 2003
Major security failures at the United Nations headquarters in Baghdad were partially responsible for the large number of deaths and casualties caused by the truck bomb there in August, according to a report on the incident.
Security lapses blamed for UN bomb

On Day 218 October 19 2003
Two American soldiers are killed and one wounded in an ambush outside the northern Iraqi city of Kirkuk.
Troops die as Saddam urges jihad

On Day 216, October 17 2003
Three American soldiers and at least seven Iraqis are killed in a gun battle outside the office


On Day 233, November 2 2003
Sixteen US soldiers are killed after their Chinook helicopter is struck six miles south of Falluja in the deadliest attack against the occupying powers since the US declared major combat to be over.
16 die in attack on US helicopter

On Day 227, October 27 2003
Thirty-five people are killed in attacks in Baghdad on its bloodiest day since the fall of Saddam. A suicide bomber rams an explosive-laden ambulance into barriers outside the Red Cross headquarters and three police stations are attacked.
35 killed and 224 injured in Baghdad bomb attacks

On Day 226, October 26 2003
Iraqi resistance fighters fire a rocket salvo at the Rashid hotel in Baghdad, narrowly missing Paul Wolfowitz, the US deputy defence secretary. An American colonel is killed and 18 people wounded.
US hawk escapes Baghdad rocket attack

On Day 224, October 24 2003
Last-minute pledges from Arab states and Japan gave a major boost to Iraq's reconstruction funds as governments opposed to the US-led invasion began to soften their positions.
Arabs and Japan pledge reconstruction cash

On Day 222, October 23 2003
Major security failures at the United Nations headquarters in Baghdad were partially responsible for the large number of deaths and casualties caused by the truck bomb there in August, according to a report on the incident.
Security lapses blamed for UN bomb

On Day 218 October 19 2003
Two American soldiers are killed and one wounded in an ambush outside the northern Iraqi city of Kirkuk.
Troops die as Saddam urges jihad

On Day 216, October 17 2003
Three American soldiers and at least seven Iraqis are killed in a gun battle outside the office of a Shia cleric in the holy Iraqi city of Kerbala.
Ten killed in firefight as tension grows in Iraq

On Day 213, October 14 2003
A suicide car bomber exploded his vehicle outside the Turkish embassy, killing the driver and a bystander, and wounding at least 13.

On Day 211, October 12 2003
A suicide car bombing near the Baghdad Hotel leaves eight people dead and at least 32 wounded.
Another day in Iraq, another bomb - 84 dates that tell tale of mayhem

On Day 208, October 9 2003
A suicide bomber drives his Oldsmobile into a police station in Baghdad's Sadr City district, killing himself and nine other people.
Eight die in suicide bomb attack
Two US soldiers killed in Baghdad ambush

On Day 201, October 2 2003
The man in charge of a hunt for Saddam Hussein's weapons of mass destruction admits that no weapon stocks had been found, and that all a three-month search, costing some £180m ($300m), had uncovered was a single vial containing a possible strain of biological agent.
'There are no shining weapons'


On Day 192 of the War on Iraq
Wednesday September 24, 2003
Bush isolated as speech to UN falls flat
Gary Younge in New York
The Guardian

George Bush was increasingly isolated on the global stage yesterday as he defied intense criticism from a litany of world leaders at the United Nations over the war on Iraq.

Showing no contrition for defying the world body in March or the declining security situation in Iraq, the US president called for the world to set aside past differences and help rebuild the country: "Now the nation of Iraq needs and deserves our aid - and all nations of goodwill should step forward and provide that support," he said.

But the French president, Jacques Chirac, who spoke after Mr Bush, blamed the US-led war for sparking one of the most severe crises in the history of the UN and argued that Mr Bush's unilateral actions could lead to anarchy.

"No one can act alone in the name of all and no one can accept the anarchy of a society without rules," he said. "The war, launched without the authorisation of the security council, shook the multilateral system. The UN has just been through one of the most grave crises in its history."

Earlier the UN secretary general, Kofi Annan, condemned the doctrine of preemptive military intervention, arguing that it could lead to the unjustified "lawless use of force" and posed a "fundamental challenge" to world peace and stability.

"My concern is that, if it were to be adopted, it could set precedents that resulted in a proliferation of the unilateral and lawless use of force, with or without credible justification," said Mr Annan. "This logic represents a fundamental challenge to the principles on which, however imperfectly, world peace and stability have rested for the last 58 years."

The Brazilian president Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva, who also spoke before Mr Bush, said: "A war can perhaps be won single-handedly. But peace - lasting peace - cannot be secured without the support of all."

Mr Bush's speech was received with polite applause from the 191-member states, while his critics were given a far warmer reception.

The American president was not just under fire for his decision to wage war without international consent but also for his refusal to move more quickly towards handing control of the country back to the Iraqi people.

Both Mr Chirac and the German chancellor Gerhard Schröder, called for a transition within months, insisting that this was crucial to securing peace. Mr Bush has not laid out a timetable. "This process must unfold according to the needs of Iraqis - neither hurried nor delayed by the voices of other parties," he said.

Mr Bush is under increasing domestic political pressure to outline a strategy to get out of Iraq, where increasing military casualties and growing financial burden on a strained economy are draining support ahead of next year's presidential election.

Having bypassed the UN to bomb Iraq, America returned to the security council earlier this month asking for military and financial help to assist it with the costs of the occupation. The resolution is currently before the security council, where France has the power of veto.


A Vague Pitch Leaves Most in Puzzlement

By GlennKessler
Washington Post Staff Writer
Wednesday, September 24, 2003; Page A01

TED NATIONS, Sept. 23 -- In his speech today to the U.N. General Assembly, President Bush tried to walk a fine line between defending a war deeply unpopular in much of the world and looking for help from reluctant countries to rebuild Iraq. The result left diplomats and lawmakers puzzled about his ultimate intentions.

Bush, in fact, sidestepped direct answers to many of the questions that have arisen since the administration said it would seek a Security Council resolution that would expand the United Nations' role in Iraq and call on countries to contribute more troops and money. How quickly would the United States grant sovereignty to the Iraqis? Would the administration grant any decision-making role to the United Nations in exchange for its imprimatur? Or does the administration simply want assistance without giving up much in return?

One reason for the vagueness is that U.S. diplomats have discovered in recent weeks that little help is likely to be forthcoming. Secretary General Kofi Annan, deeply disturbed by the bombing attacks on the U.N. mission in Baghdad, has urged a slow and careful review of the organization's role in Iraq, U.S. and U.N. officials say. The list of countries willing and able to provide troops appears to have dwindled, not increased, and even financially deep-pocketed countries such as Japan have indicated they would not be able to contribute much to the U.S. enterprise in Iraq, U.S. officials said.

"There is a hell of a case of donor fatigue," a senior administration official said today. "A realistic appraisal [of what a new resolution would bring] is 'not much.' "

Bush's rhetorical maneuvering room was limited in other ways. Faced with the worst approval ratings of his presidency, Bush designed his speech to appeal to a domestic audience. But the president's conservative base, long skeptical of the United Nations, would not approve of an explicit acknowledgment of a broad U.N. role in Iraq. Bush limited his comments on potential U.N. aid to programs that bring broad bipartisan support, such as UNICEF and the World Food Program.

In Bush's most direct plea for assistance, he declared, "Every young democracy needs the help of friends. Now the nation of Iraq needs and deserves our aid, and all nations of goodwill should step forward and provide that support."

Democrats on Capitol Hill quickly took note of Bush's unwillingness to offer a detailed plan for Iraq. "He came before the international community and he could have made the case for more troops, for more resources. He didn't do that," Senate Minority Leader Thomas A. Daschle (D-S.D.) said. "He hasn't presented a plan to the United Nations. He hasn't presented one to this country or to this Congress. It was a missed opportunity, and that's very disappointing."

In the view of many in attendance here, Iraq is largely a problem of Bush's making. The Security Council was deeply divided over whether to authorize military action against Iraq -- and Bush withdrew a proposed resolution before the war when it faced certain defeat. Many nations might have been willing to support a war if the administration had been willing to give U.N. weapons inspections a few more weeks, but the administration refused to alter its military timetable. The inability to find proscribed weapons after the war also hurt the administration's case.

Bush, in defending the war, argued, "Events during the past two years have set before us the clearest of divides: between those who seek order, and those who spread chaos; between those who work for peaceful change, and those who adopt the methods of gangsters."

But in two speeches that bracketed the president's address, Annan and French President Jacques Chirac suggested that it is the administration's doctrine of "preemption" -- the promise to strike against emerging threats -- that threatens to spread chaos across the globe. Both men bluntly said that the Bush administration is undermining the collective security arrangements that have governed the world since World War II.

"The United Nations has just weathered one of its most serious trials in its history: respect for the [U.N.] Charter, the use of force, were at the heart of the debate," Chirac said. "The war, which was started without the authorization of the Security Council, has shaken the multilateral system."

Annan said that reserving "the right to act unilaterally or in ad hoc coalitions . . . represents a fundamental challenge to the principles on which, however imperfectly, world peace and stability have rested for the last 58 years. My concern is that if it were to be adopted, it would set precedents that resulted in a proliferation of the unilateral and lawless use of force with or without justification."

The enthusiastic reaction to those speeches in the General Assembly hall, compared to the tepid, almost perfunctory applause for Bush's presentation, underscored the difficult task ahead for the administration as it tries to build support for the nascent Iraqi government.

U.N. Secretary General Kofi Annan Speaks to U.N. General Assembly

FDCH E-Media
Tuesday, September 23, 2003; 1:26 PM

United Nations Secretary General Kofi Annan spoke Tuesday before the U.N. General Assembly. Complete transcript follows:

ANNAN (THROUGH TRANSLATOR): Distinguished heads of state and government, excellencies, ladies and gentlemen, the last 12 months have been very painful for those of us who believe in collective answers to our common problems and challenges.

In many countries terrorism has once again brought death and suffering to innocent people. In the Middle East and in certain parts of Africa violence has continued to escalate. In the Korean Peninsula and elsewhere the threat of nuclear proliferation casts an ominous shadow across the landscape. And barely one month ago in Baghdad the United Nations itself suffered (OFF-MIKE) in which the international community lost some of its most talented servants.

Yesterday, the United Nations was again attacked and it was only because of the prompt action by the Iraqi police that another major disaster was averted. Unfortunately, one Iraqi policeman lost his life.

On this occasion, I convey the most sincere condolences to members of the bereaved families, but I am also thinking of the 19 people who were murdered in the other attack. I hope that very quickly all those who have been injured or who were killed in the war, soldiers and innocent civilians, I do hope that they all remain in our prayers.

In this context I deplore, as you do all I am sure, the brutal attack. Dr. Akila al-Hashimi was attacked, the member of the governing council. I hope that he soon recovers from that attack.

The United Nations is you; you are the United Nations. The staff who were killed and injured in the attack on our Baghdad headquarters were your staff. You had given them a mandate to assist the suffering Iraqi people and help recover their sovereignty.

In future, not only in Iraq, but wherever the United Nations is engaged, we must take more effective measures to protect the security of our staff. I count on your full support: legal, political and financial.

Meanwhile, let me reaffirm the great importance I attach to a successful outcome in Iraq. Whatever view each of us may take of the events of recent months, it is vital to all of us that the outcome is a stable, democratic Iraq, at peace with itself and with its neighbors and contributing to the stability in the region.

Subject to satisfactory security considerations, the United Nations system is prepared to play as full a role in working for satisfactory outcome in Iraq and to do so as part of an international effort, an effort by the whole international community pulling together on the basis of a sound and viable policy.

If it takes extra time and patience to forge that policy, a policy that is collective, coherent and workable, then I, for one, would regard that time as well spent. Indeed, this is how we must approach all the many pressing crises that confront us today.

Excellencies, three years ago, when you came here for the Millennium Summit, we shared a vision, a vision of global solidarity and security expressed in the Millennium Declaration. But recent events have called that consensus in question. All of us know there are new threats that must be faced or perhaps old threats in new and dangerous combinations: new forms of terrorism and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction.

But while some consider these threats as self-evidently the main challenge to world peace and security, others feel more immediately menaced by small arms employed in civil conflict or by so-called soft threats, such as persistence of extreme poverty, the disparity of income between and within societies, and the spread of infectious diseases, or climate change and environmental degradation.

In truth, we do not have to choose. The United Nations must confront all these threats and challenges, new and old, hard and soft. It must be fully engaged in the struggle for development and poverty eradication, starting with the achievement of the millennium development goals. In the common struggle to protect our common environment and in the struggle for human rights, democracy and good governance, in fact, all of these struggles are linked. We now see with chilling clarity that a world where many millions of people endure brutal oppression and extreme misery will never be fully secure even for its most privileged inhabitants.

Yet the hard threats, such as terrorism and weapons of mass destruction, are real and cannot be ignored. Terrorism is not a problem only for the rich countries; ask the people of Bali or Bombay, Nairobi or Casablanca. Weapons of mass destruction do not threaten only the Western or northern world; ask the people of Iran or of Halabjah in Iraq.

Where we disagree it seems is on how to respond to these threats. Since this organization was founded, states have generally sought to deal with threats to the peace through containment and deterrence by a system based on collective security and the United Nations Charter.

This may be a moment no less decisive than in 1945 itself, when the United Nations was founded.

At that time, a group of far-sighted leaders, led and inspired by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, were determined to make the second half of the 20th century different from the first half. They saw that the human race had only one world to live in and that, unless it managed its affairs prudently, all human beings may perish.

So they drew up rules to govern international behavior and founded a network of institutions with the United Nations at its center, in which the peoples of the world could work together for the common good.

Now we must decide whether it is possible to continue on the basis agreed then or whether radical changes are needed. And we must not shy away from questions about the adequacy and effectiveness of the rules and instruments at our disposal.

Among those instruments, none is more important than the Security Council itself. In my recent report on the implementation of the millennium declaration, I drew attention to the urgent need for the council to regain the confidence of states and of world public opinion, both by demonstrating its ability to deal effectively with the most difficult issues and by becoming more broadly representative of the international community as a whole, as well as the geopolitical realities of today.

The council needs to consider how it will deal with the possibility that individual states may use force preemptively against perceived threats. Its members may need to begin a discussion on the criteria for an early authorization of coercive measures to address certain types of threats; for instance, terrorist groups armed with weapons of mass destruction.

And they still need to engage in serious discussions of the best way to respond to threats of genocide or other comparable massive violations of human rights, an issue which I raised myself from this podium in 1999.

Once again this year, our collective response to events of this type in the Democratic Republic of Congo and Liberia has been hesitant and tardy.

As for the composition of the council that has been on the agenda of this assembly for over a decade, virtually all member states agree that the council should be enlarged, but there is no agreement on the details.

I respectfully suggest to you, Excellencies, that in the eyes of your peoples, the difficulty of reaching an agreement does not excuse your failure to do so. If you want the council and the council's decisions to command greater respect, particularly in the developing world, you need to address the issue of its composition with greater urgency.

But the Security Council is not the only institution that needs strengthening. As you know, I'm doing my best to make the secretariat more effective and I look to this assembly to support my efforts. Indeed in my report, I also suggested that this assembly itself needs to be strengthened and that the role of the Economic and Social Council and the role of the United Nations as a whole in economic and social affairs, including its relations to the Bretton Woods institutions, needs to be rethought and reinvigorated.

I even suggested that the role of the trusteeship council could be reviewed in light of the new kinds of responsibility that you have given to the United Nations in recent years.

In short, Excellencies, I believe that the time is right for a hard look at fundamental policy issues and at the structural changes that may be needed in order to strengthen them.

History is a harsh judge. It will not forgive us if we let this moment pass.

For my part, I intend to establish a high-level panel of eminent personalities to which I will assign four tasks: first, to examine the current challenges to peace and security; second, to consider the contribution which collective action can make in addressing these challenges; third, to review the functioning of major organs of the United Nations and the relationship between them; and fourth, to recommend ways of strengthening the United Nations through reform of institutions and processes.

The panel will focus primarily on threats to peace and security, but it will also need to examine other global challenges insofar as these may influence or connect with those threats.

I will ask the panel to report back to me before the beginning of the next session of this General Assembly so that I can make recommendations to you at that session. But only you can take the firm and clear decisions that will be needed.

Those decisions might include far-reaching institutional reforms. Indeed, I hope they will. But institutional reforms alone will not suffice. Even the most perfect instrument will fail unless people put it to good use.

The United Nations is by no means a perfect instrument, but it is a precious one. I urge you to seek agreement on ways to improving it, but above all of using it as its founders intended: to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war, to reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights, to reestablish the basic conditions for justice and the rule of law, and to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom.

The world may have changed, Excellencies, but those sayings are as valid and urgent as ever. We must keep them firmly in our sights.

Thank you very much.



In Senate, Kennedy Fuels Sharp Debate
Senator's Comments on War as 'Fraud' Prompt Angry Replies From GOP Colleagues
By Helen Dewar and Vernon Loeb
Washington Post Staff Writers
Wednesday, September 24, 2003; Page A25

With scathing criticism of a colleague that is rare in the clubby Senate, Republicans lashed out yesterday at recent comments by Sen. Edward M. Kennedy (D-Mass.) that depicted President Bush's decision to go to war in Iraq as a "fraud" aimed at helping Republicans at the polls.

Democrats rose to Kennedy's defense, and he later took the Senate floor to restate his criticisms of Bush's Iraq policy. While giving no ground on substance, Kennedy moderated his language somewhat, avoiding words such as "fraud" and "bribery" that infuriated Republicans when he first used them in an interview Thursday with the Associated Press in Boston.

Yesterday's heated exchanges occurred as Bush defended his Iraq policy before a skeptical United Nations and Democratic presidential candidates sharpened their criticisms of his prewar and postwar decisions. Opinion polls, meanwhile, find waning public confidence in the president's postwar policies, and many Democratic voters now say the war wasn't worth the cost

In Thursday's AP interview, Kennedy said the decision to go to war was "made up in Texas," Bush's home state, to help the GOP cause. "This whole thing was a fraud," he said. The administration cannot account for billions of dollars in war spending, he said, suggesting it "is being shuffled all around to these political leaders in all parts of the world, bribing them to send in troops."

White House spokeswoman Claire Buchan said yesterday that Kennedy's alleged "bribes" are actually nothing but standard foreign assistance. "As any member of Congress knows or should know, foreign assistance to friends and allies has been a staple of America's international policy for decades," she said. "Reducing the discourse to this level is a real disservice to the American people."

Yesterday's Republican attack and Democratic counterattack were unusual because senators usually avoid direct criticisms of one another, preferring instead to make their points in more oblique, old-school ways. But many GOP senators had been simmering over Kennedy's remarks and wanted to defend the White House.

Bush had called Kennedy's remarks "uncivil," and House Majority Leader Tom DeLay (R-Tex.) said Democrats had "spewed more hateful rhetoric at President Bush than they ever did at Saddam Hussein." But, with senators out of town over the weekend, little had been heard on a national level from Senate Republicans.

The GOP response to Kennedy, which occurred just as Bush was addressing the United Nations, was led by Sen. Robert F. Bennett (Utah), the Republicans' chief deputy whip. Bennett cited warnings by President Bill Clinton, among others, that force might have to be used to oust then-Iraqi President Saddam Hussein. The allegations of fraud cannot be substantiated, he said, suggesting that Kennedy deserved a rebuke for his remarks.

Armed Services Committee Chairman John W. Warner (R-Va.) took the criticism a step further. "Stop to think of the reaction of a young wife surrounded by small children, not knowing from day to day whether her husband will survive another day's engagement in Afghanistan or Iraq," he said. "And they hear that this whole thing has been a fraud perpetrated upon this family and was made up in Texas. I find that very painful."

Sen. Kay Bailey Hutchison (R-Tex.) said: "I think it was a slur on my home state of Texas."

Senate Democratic Leader Thomas A. Daschle (S.D.), noting that he too has come under fire this year for criticizing Bush's Iraq policy, decried what he called an "orchestrated" GOP effort to attack anyone who criticizes Bush. Later, at a news conference, Daschle said it was "McCarthyesque" to criticize people who are vocal in their opposition to certain policies.

"It seems like anyone who comes to the floor to express concern or to express his views or her views on Iraq is now the subject of attack, regardless of one's views," he said.

Kennedy was not in the Senate during the Republicans' speeches but soon entered the chamber to respond. Rather than mentioning the "fraud" charge, he said the "administration's rationale [for war] was built on a quicksand of false assumptions."

"Many Americans share my views, and I regret that the president considers them uncivil and not in the national interest," he said. "The real action that was not in the American interest was the decision to go to war unilaterally, without the support of our allies and without a plan to win the peace."

There are "valid questions and deep concerns about the administration's rush to war in Iraq," he said, including "whether there's a plan for winning the peace, how the money is being spent and when our troops can come home with honor."

To bolster the senator's assertion that the administration could not account for billions of dollars and was "bribing" nations to send troops to Iraq, his office this week released a list of approved loans, expenditures and spending proposals, beginning with a new $8.5 billion loan package for Turkey.

While the United States has been pressing Turkey to provide 10,000 peacekeeping troops to help stabilize Iraq, Treasury Secretary John W. Snow said Monday the loans were designed to help Turkey recover from economic losses due to the war in Iraq and are not contingent on Turkey's provision of soldiers. The $8.5 billion in loans for Turkey, according to Kennedy's spending list, comes on top of $1 billion in economic support funds previously approved in the current fiscal year for that nation.

Jordan, a key Middle East ally that allowed U.S. Special Operations forces to stage operations from its soil, received $700 million in U.S. economic support funds this fiscal year, Kennedy said. Egypt received $300 million in economic support funds plus $2 billion in loan guarantees.

Kennedy's list included $200 million spent by the administration in airlift and support costs for a multinational division under Polish command that recently replaced a U.S. Marine contingent south of Baghdad. In addition, it said the Bush administration has spent $800 million in the current fiscal year to "reimburse key cooperating nations for providing logistical and military support."

Finally, Kennedy cited a number of spending initiatives included in the administration's recent $87 billion supplemental spending request to support military operations and reconstruction in Iraq and Afghanistan, including $1.4 billion to reimburse Jordan, Pakistan and other cooperating nations for logistical, military and other support to U.S. military operations and $200 million in economic support funds for Pakistani debt forgiveness.

On Day 193 of the War, September 25 2003
Aqila al-Hashmi, the most prominent of three women on Iraq's governing council, dies of wounds sustained in an ambush.

Iraq council member dies after shooting

On Day 189 of the War, September 21 2003
Officials on Iraq's governing council warn that they are increasingly at risk from attack, a day after one of their number was shot and badly wounded in an assassination attempt.
Attack on Iraq council member spurs tighter security call

On Day 187 of the War, September 19 2003
Saddam Hussein's former defence minister surrenders to US troops in northern Iraq following weeks of negotiations, says a Kurdish mediator.
Former Iraqi defence minister surrenders

September 18 2003
The former UN chief weapons inspector, Hans Blix, says he believes Iraq destroyed most of its weapons of mass destruction 10 years ago.
Iraq dumped WMDs years ago, says Blix
Blix accuses UK and US of spin over Iraq

On Day 185 of the War, September 17 2003
An audio tape message purported to have been recorded by the deposed Iraqi leader, Saddam Hussein, is aired by Arabic television channel al-Arabiya.
New 'Saddam tape' issued

September 14 2003
Colin Powell, US secretary of state, meets Iraqi politicians in Baghdad as an American soldier is killed and three wounded in an attack near Falluja, where Iraqi police died in a "friendly fire" incident.
Powell flies in to Iraqi anger at deaths

September 13 2003
President George Bush's approval ratings have slumped to a lower point than they were in the week of the terrorist attacks two years ago, according to the latest Gallup poll.
Support for Bush and war slumps

On Day 180 of the War, September 12 2003
The US military reignites tension in one of Iraq's most troubled towns when its troops mistakenly shoot dead eight policemen who were chasing a car full of suspected bandits.
US killing of eight Iraqi police fuels anger in troubled town

On Day 178 of the War, September 10 2003
A suicide car bomber attacks the US intelligence base in the northern Iraqi city of Irbil, killing three people and injuring 41.
Three killed in Irbil suicide bombing

On Day 176 of the War, September 8 2003
Britain will send 1,000 more troops to bolster its security operation in Iraq, says defence secretary Geoff Hoon.
UK to send 1,000 more troops to Iraq

On Day 175 of the War, September 7 2003
President George Bush seekst to reassure jittery Americans about their country's involvement in Iraq, dismissing doubts by arguing that it remains a central front in the war on terror.
Fear of $80bn Iraq bill moves Bush to address nation

On Day 173 of the War, September 5 2003
A Briton and an American working in Iraq are shot and killed in separate incidents, fuelling concerns that guerrillas launching attacks on the military occupiers may be widening their targets.
British charity worker killed in Iraq gun attack

On Day 171 of the War, September 3 2003
Resolution is defeat for hawks in White House.
Bush asks UN for help in Iraq

On Day 170 of the War, September 2 2003
Tens of thousands of mourners turn the funeral service for the murdered Iraqi cleric Ayatollah Mohammed Baqir al-Hakim into a show of defiance against the US-led occupation.
Shia mourners demand end to US occupation

On Day 169 of the War, September 1 2003
Two Arabic television channels broadcast what they say is a recorded message from Saddam Hussein, denying responsibility for last week's devastating car bomb in Najaf.
Tape said to be by Saddam denies role in Najaf bombing
Iraqi quits council in security protest

On Day 166 of the War, August 29 2003
A leading Shia cleric is among the many people killed in a car bomb attack outside a mosque in the Iraqi town of Najaf.
Huge bomb blast in Najaf
Spiritual and political leader of the Iraqi Shias

On Day 163 of the War, August 26 2003
Humanitarian aid agencies say they are evacuating their workers from Iraq in the latest sign that the security situation is slipping out of the US-British coalition's control.

Aid agencies evacuate their workers

On Day 159 of the War, Friday August 22, 2003

Kelly's chilling words: 'I'll be found dead in the woods'

Diplomat reveals inspector's pre-war doubts

Ewen MacAskill, Nicholas Watt and Vikram Dodd
Friday August 22, 2003
The Guardian

The weapons specialist, Dr David Kelly, said six months ago that he would "probably be found dead in the woods" if the American and British invasion of Iraq went ahead, Lord Hutton's inquiry was told yesterday.

His chilling prediction of his own death during a conversation with the British diplomat David Broucher in Geneva in February, throws new light on his state of mind about the row over Britain's role in the Iraq war.

In a startling string of revelations yesterday, Lord Hutton's inquiry was told that Dr Kelly:

· confirmed there had been a "robust" debate between Downing Street and the intelligence services about the September dossier on weapons of mass destruction

· expressed scepticism about British claims that Iraq's weapons capability could be deployed quickly

· had been in direct contact with senior Iraqi scientists and officials he knew, promising them the war could be avoided

· feared he had "betrayed" these contacts and that the invasion had left him in a "morally ambiguous" position.

The latest twists came as Lord Hutton announced that Tony Blair would give evidence on Thursday and the defence secretary, Geoff Hoon, on Wednesday. Both will be pressed about the September dossier and about the way the government helped put Dr Kelly's name into the public domain.

The disclosure of Dr Kelly's unease about the Iraq war even before the invasion on March 20 undermines assumptions that his apparent suicide was tied to recent events, principally the pressure he came under last month over his conversations with the BBC reporter, Andrew Gilligan.

Dr Kelly's body was found in woods near his home last month.

Towards the end of Lord Hutton's inquiry yesterday, Mr Broucher, British ambassador to the disarmament conference in Geneva, made a surprise appearance.

He said he had sent an email to Patrick Lamb, his boss at the Foreign Office, on August 5, recalling a chance conversation with Dr Kelly at disarmament talks in February, in which he set out his concerns.

Elaborating on the email yesterday, Mr Broucher said that Dr Kelly had told him the government had pressured the intelligence community to make the September dossier as "robust as possible, that every judgment [in the dossier] had been robustly fought over".

Contrary to a claim in the dossier that biological and chemical weapons could be deployed within 45 minutes, Dr Kelly said he thought the weapons and the material to be placed inside them "would be kept separately from the munitions and that this meant that the weapons could not be used quickly".

It emerged this week that the MoD knew that Dr Kelly's views on Iraq could make uncomfortable reading for the government, and the conver sation with Mr Broucher bears out why the MoD - in particular, Mr Hoon - was so keen to prevent any disclosures.

A government memo published yesterday showed that Mr Hoon tried to stop Dr Kelly talking about weapons of mass destruction when he appeared before the Commons foreign affairs select committee.

Mr Broucher said that Dr Kelly thought that the UN weapons inspectors could gain a good idea of the state of the Iraqi arsenal because the Iraqis had learned during the British colonial days to keep full written records. That assessment runs counter to the US, which insisted inspectors were wasting their efforts.

A crucial point in the conversation with Mr Broucher was Dr Kelly's revelation about continued links with Iraqis after working in Iraq in the 90s as a UN weapons inspector. He had retained contacts with Iraqi scientists and officials, and told Mr Broucher he had tried to persuade them to comply with the inspectors in order to avoid invasion.

In his email, Mr Broucher said Dr Kelly's concern was that "if an invasion now went ahead, that would make him a liar and he would have betrayed his contacts, some of whom might be killed as a direct result of his actions".

Mr Broucher added: "I asked what would happen then, and he replied, in a throwaway line, that he would 'probably be found dead in the woods'."

His interpretation of this was Dr Kelly feared a personal attack by the Iraqis: "I did not think much of this at the time, taking it to be a hint that the Iraqis might try to take revenge against him, something that did not seem at all fanciful then. I now see that he may have been thinking on rather different lines."

Barney Leith, secretary of the National Spiritual assembly of Britain, who knew Dr Kelly and will testify before the Hutton inquiry about the impact of the Baha'i faith had on him, said he could not know whether the scientist might have taken his own life because of guilt. But he added: "The teachings of the Baha'i faith strongly emphasise the importance of ... keeping one's word."


On Day 156 of the War, Tuesday August 19, 2003
A huge truck bomb strikes at the heart of the international humanitarian effort in Iraq, destroying part of the UN headquarters in Baghdad and killing at least 20 people, including the head of the UN mission.
Iraq: the agony goes on

On Day 154 of the War, August 17 2003
US attempts to restore Iraq's shaky infrastructure suffer a serious setback when guerrillas blow up a vital oil pipeline in the north for the second time. A hole is also blown in a water main in Baghdad.
Iraq hit by fresh attack on oil pipeline

A Reuters TV cameraman is shot dead by US troops after they mistake his camera for a grenade launcher.
Cameraman shot dead by US troops

On Day 152 of the War, August 15 2003
Saboteurs blow up a crude oil export pipeline in northern Iraq, starting a huge oil fire, halting all oil exports to Turkey and starving an economy in chaos of much-needed income to rebuild.
Terror blast cuts off Iraq's oil pipeline to Turkey

On Day 151 of the War, August 14 2003
A British soldier is killed, and two others injured, in an attack on an army ambulance travelling through the outskirts of Basra.
British soldier killed in Basra

On Day 147 of the War, August 10 2003
US officials say they are braced for further large-scale terrorist attacks in Iraq after reports from intelligence sources that hundreds of Islamic militants, who escaped across the border to Iran during the war, may have got back into the country.
Be prepared for terror attacks, says Bremer

On Day 146 of the War, August 9, 2003
British troops in riot gear fight to restore calm in the southern Iraqi city of Basra as dire shortages of fuel and power spark disturbances.
British troops battle to control mobs in Basra

On Day 145  of the War, August 8 2003
US snipers shoot dead two Iraqis and injure at least two others they claim were selling weapons at a street market in Saddam Hussein's home town, Tikrit.
US shoots two dead at start of softer rule

Six Iraqis, including a father and three of his children, are killed in Baghdad by US troops who open fire on them as they hurry home to beat the curfew.
Civilians killed by US troops

On Day 144 of the War, August 7, 2003
Violence returns to the streets of Baghdad with a vengeance when at least 11 people are killed in a massive car bomb explosion outside the Jordanian embassy. The blast leads to fears that guerrilla fighters may now be turning their attention towards so-called soft targets.
Jordanian embassy blast kills 11 in Baghdad

On Day 139 of the War, August 2, 2003
With their coffins wrapped in the Iraqi flag, but guarded by the troops of their mortal enemy, the bodies of Uday and Qusay Hussein are laid to rest in a dusty cemetery in the village where their father was born.
Tribe gathers to bury Saddam's sons

On Day 137 of the War, July 31, 2003
Around 10,000 young men have come forward to join an "Islamic army" in the holy city of Najaf, according to Muqtada al-Sadr, the fiery cleric who is trying to become the unchallengeable leader of Shia opposition.
Anti-US cleric rallies recruits for Islamic army

On Day 135 of the War, July 29, 2003
A tape recording purported to be by Saddam Hussein declares that his two sons, Uday and Qusay, died as martyrs for Iraq, and pledges that the US will be defeated.
Saddam praises dead sons

On Day 134 of the War, July 28, 2003
Tony Blair and other British ministers are accused of crimes against humanity in prosecuting the war against Iraq in a case lodged with the international criminal court by Greek lawyers.
Greeks accuse Blair of war crimes in Iraq

On Day 133 of the War, July 27, 2003
Iraqi guerrillas kill a US soldier in a grenade attack south of Baghdad, bringing the American death toll in 24 hours to five.
Iraqis kill five more US soldiers

On Day 131  of the War, July 25, 2003
Tokyo approves its biggest deployment of troops since 1945 as Washington casts around for help shouldering the post-Saddam burden.
End of an era as Japan enters Iraq

On Day 130 of the War, Thursday, July 24th
US to show corpse photos

Pictures of Saddam's sons to provide proof to Iraqis

Julian Borger in Washington
Thursday July 24, 2003
The Guardian

Graphic pictures of the bodies of Saddam Hussein's heirs, Uday and Qusay, will be released to prove to the Iraqi people that the brothers were killed by US troops, Washington announced last night.

The pictures have been described as "horrific", but Paul Wolfowitz, the deputy defence secretary, argued that the US might have to show the "shocking" images because their release could undermine guerrilla groups devoted to restoring the old regime.

"The main consideration on our minds," he said, "is that it is saving the lives of American men and women who are on the line."

The US defence secretary, Donald Rumsfeld, confirmed after a long debate in Washington that the images would be released

Saddam 'supporters' vow revenge
Video of Saddam supporters from Al-Jazeera TV
A Saddam supporter said the US would 'burn'

A group described as supporters of Saddam Hussein has appeared on the Arabic TV channel al-Jazeera.

The video footage, which the TV said was shot in an unidentified location in Iraq, shows a group of masked men brandishing assault rifles and rocket-propelled grenade launchers.

The men, who are also holding up a picture of Saddam Hussein, threaten to carry out attacks in the United States, Britain and Israel to avenge the deaths of the ousted Iraqi president's sons.

We will make them regret what they did to Uday and Qusay
Saddam supporter on al-Jazeera TV

"If this report about Uday and Qusay proves to be true, we will burn all of the United States," one of the men says.

"The United States, Britain and Israel will not have peace. We will carry out operations inside the United States, inside Britain, inside Israel, and inside Iraq."

"We will make them regret what they did to Uday and Qusay."

"All the Iraqis are ready, and are people of resistance. God willing, we will take revenge."

On Day 129 of the War, Wednesday, July 24th
Hoon pays visit to scientist's widow

Richard Norton-Taylor, Michael White and Nicholas Watt in Hong Kong
Thursday July 24, 2003
The Guardian

The widow of David Kelly yesterday called the defence secretary, Geoff Hoon, to her Oxfordshire home to discuss the circumstances which led to the suicide of the government's senior biological and chemical weapons adviser.

The meeting took place as details emerged of Dr Kelly's status as an adviser within the defence hierarchy, fuelling the dispute between the BBC and the government, which Lord Hutton is now set to examine.

The Kelly family has complained about the biologist's treatment at the hands of the Ministry of Defence.

Mr Hoon is likely to have been questioned about his department's hotly contested role in identifying Dr Kelly, who had been warned that his name might leak out.

The defence secretary, fighting for his political survival, spent 75 minutes with Mrs Kelly at her home in Abingdon, six days after her husband's apparent suicide, which came after giving highly publicised evidence on his role - posthumously confirmed - as the prime source of the BBC reporter Andrew Gilligan.

Defence officials declined to indicate what had been discussed. But Mr Hoon routinely sees the grieving families of servicemen killed in action, if they so request it, and faces whatever concerns they may have.

"People ask some very pertinent questions," one said.

The meeting took place as a fuller picture emerged of the central role Dr Kelly played in advising the government on Iraq's chemical and biological weapons programme.

The scientist sat on a number of high-level MoD committees at which intelligence assessments were discussed. Asked whether Dr Kelly would have had access to up-to-date intelligence, a defence source replied: "Yes, it would have been no good if he had not been."

Dr Kelly did not brief Mr Hoon, who never met him. He briefed those who did. His advice had been sought by M16.

It is understood Dr Kelly was a member of a high-level working group responsible for processing intelligence on Iraq's weapons of mass destruction programme and deciding what information about it could be published - for example in answer to questions from MPs.

As the government's chief chemical and biological warfare expert on Iraq he was security cleared to read sensitive intelligence material. But he was not the "senior intelligence source" claimed in some BBC reports.

As Lord Hutton, the judge appointed to investigate the handling of Dr Kelly, reads himself into the case, aides confirmed he may take some evidence before the TV cameras.

The BBC has confirmed that it has a tape of its science editor Susan Watts' interview with Dr Kelly. It will be given to Lord Hutton.

Also expected to be handed over - instead of being published today - is the transcript of Gilligan's second crossexamination by the Commons foreign affairs committee, in which he denies that MPs' claim that he had changed his story about his sources. A statement from the committee is expected at noon.

The BBC tape's confirmation that Dr Kelly had said ministers were "desperate" for information about Saddam's immediate military threat - about which Dr Kelly was sceptical - is regarded as a crucial part of its defence.

No 10 says it has no quarrel with Watts' reports, which acknowledge the crucial point: that Dr Kelly "was not disputing that the 45-minute claim was included in the dossier by the intelligence services", rather than inserted by Alastair Campbell, Tony Blair's communications director, against their will.

In a separate development, Tom Kelly, No 10's spokesman, denied a Guardian report yesterday that he had been "furnishing information" which actively helped the Financial Times identify Dr Kelly.'

One of Lord Hutton's likely witnesses, Mr Blair, yesterday cut short his round-the-world trip as he fled Hong Kong a day early to escape the devastating typhoon Imbudo which has killed six people in the Philippines and threatened the safety of his flight.

On Day 128 of the War, Tuesday, July 22nd

American forces, CIA and Army, kill Uday and Qusay,Saddam Hussein's two sons. They  are killed in a raid and shoot-out at a house in Mosul, near the Syrian border.  One of the son's 14-year old boys is also killed, and a body guard during a 4-hour long assault with helicopter gunships and heavy mortar rounds.

On Day 126 of the War, Sunday, July 21, 2003
2 U.S. soldiers killed in ambush & International aid workers also ambushed

Sunday, July 20, 2003 Posted: 11:18 PM EDT (0318 GMT)

BAGHDAD, Iraq (CNN) -- Two U.S. soldiers were killed Sunday and another was wounded after being ambushed with small arms fire and rocket-propelled grenades.

The attack happened west of Mosul, in northern Iraq. The three soldiers, from the 101st Airborne Division, were brought to a hospital where two of them died, U.S. military officials said. Assailants also attacked a convoy of international aid workers near Hilla, about 60 miles south of Baghdad, U.N. spokesman Ahmed Fawzi said. The driver of one vehicle was killed and another aid worker was injured when their vehicle crashed during the attack, Fawzi said.  The two vehicles in the convoy were carrying members of the Geneva-based International Organization for Migration, he said. An estimated 13,000 troops, mostly British, are in Iraq along with 148,000 U.S. troops. India was asked to contribute 17,000 troops but said it would not contribute peacekeepers unless they had U.N. backing.

Sunday's deaths brought the total Americans killed in Iraq to 92 since President Bush declared an end to major combat operations May 1. Of those, 26 deaths have occurred in July alone. Thirty-five of the 92 deaths were in hostile action.

BBC Says Dead Arms Expert Was Main Source for Disputed Report

Filed at 10:23 p.m. ET

LONDON (AP) -- Prime Minister Tony Blair said he would take full responsibility if an inquiry finds the government contributed to the suicide of scientist David Kelly -- identified Sunday by the British Broadcasting Corp. as its main source in accusing the government of hyping weapons evidence to justify war in Iraq.


Blair, dogged on his trip through east Asia by angry charges about the Ministry of Defense adviser's death, said he has no intention of resigning over the dispute, as some critics at home have demanded.

On Day 125 of the War, Saturday, July 20, 2003
Thousands of Shiites protest outside coalition headquarters in Baghdad Saturday.
Thousands of Shiites protest outside coalition headquarters in Baghdad Saturday.
On Day 124 of the War, Friday, July 19, 2003
Dr. David Kelly, British Microbiologist &  Former U.N. Arms Inspector in Iraq, is found dead near his home in England. 
Dr. Kelly was  reported missing by Thames Valley Police and a major search operation is launched in the vicinity of his home in Abingdon, Oxfordshire. The police say they are "very concerned for his wellbeing". Donald Anderson, the chairman of the foreign affairs committee, says he is "shocked" by the development  that his witness, Dr. Kelly, is missing. Dr. Kelly is later found dead, with one wrist slashed and a packet of pills found near his body. His family say he was despondent after becoming the center of the political controversy of whether the UK government had lied or seriously exaggerated the threat Iraq presented with its so-called "WMD". in order to make a strong case for going to war against Iraq. 

The scientist sat on a number of high-level MoD committees at which intelligence assessments were discussed. Asked whether Dr Kelly would have had access to up-to-date intelligence, a defence source replied: "Yes, it would have been no good if he had not been." Dr Kelly did not brief  Defense Secretary, Mr Hoon, who never met him. He briefed those who did. His advice had been sought by M16.  It is understood Dr Kelly was a member of a high-level working group responsible for processing intelligence on Iraq's weapons of mass destruction programme and deciding what information about it could be published - for example in answer to questions from MPs.

As the government's chief chemical and biological warfare expert on Iraq he was security cleared to read sensitive intelligence material. But he was not the "senior intelligence source" claimed in some BBC reports.

On Day 123 of the War, Thursday, July 19, 2003

WASHINGTON (CNN) -- British Prime Minister Tony Blair offered an unrepentant defense of the war in Iraq, telling members of Congress on Thursday that "history will not forgive" world leaders who fail to confront the threat posed by proliferation of weapons of mass destruction.

"If we are wrong, we will have destroyed a threat that at its least is responsible for inhuman carnage and suffering. That is something I am confident history will forgive," he said. "But if our critics are wrong ... and we do not act, then we will have hesitated in the face of this menace when we should have given leadership. That is something history will not forgive."

Blair said he believes with "every fiber of instinct and conviction I have" that the U.S.-British stand in Iraq was right.

Blair's trip to the United States comes amid the contentious dispute over the veracity of intelligence reports on Iraq's banned weapons programs.

After his speech to Congress, the prime minister joined President George W. Bush at an afternoon news conference to refute suggestions that they manipulated the intelligence information to justify toppling Saddam Hussein.

"The regime of Saddam Hussein was a grave and growing threat," Bush said. "Given Saddam's history of violence and aggression, it would have been reckless to place our trust in his sanity or his restraint."

"As long as I hold this office, I will never risk the lives of American citizens by assuming the good will of dangerous enemies."

Blair also said that British intelligence information that the Iraqi regime was trying to buy uranium from the African nation of Niger was "genuine."

"We stand by that intelligence," he said. "In case people should think that the whole idea of a link between Iraq and Niger was some invention, in the 1980s, we know for sure that Iraq purchased around about 270 tons of uranium from Niger."

On Day 121 of the War, Tuesday, July 15th

Microbiologist & U.K. weapons expert Dr. David Kelly gives evidence to the foreign affairs select committee in which he denies that he was the main source for claims that Campbell "sexed up" the September dossier which  Prime Minister Blair's administration used to convince Parliament to go to War against Iraq. MPs on the committee back him in a statement saying they do not believe he is the sole source and accuse the government of treating him as a "fall guy"

Earlier during the session Dr Kelly agreed that he had met Gilligan but said he did not believe he could be the primary source.

Committee members backed his claim when they later issued a statement concluding that Dr Kelly was "most unlikely" to have been the source.

Giving nervous and faltering evidence, Dr Kelly told the committee: "I believe I am not the main source. From the conversation I had with him I don't see how he could make the authoritative statements he was making from the comments that I made."

On Day 115 of the War, July 9th
UK Defence secretary Geoff Hoon names Dr. David Kelly, a Ministry of Defence microbiologist and weapons consultant, as the source for BBC story about UK government's distortion on how serious Iraq's WMD/
UK Defence secretary Geoff Hoon names Dr. David Kelly, a Ministry of Defence microbiologist and weapons consultant, in a letter to the BBC, asking the corporation to confirm or deny whether he is the confidential source of Gilligan's story about how the British government distorted the facts regarding the seriousness of Iraq's Mass Weapons of Destruction. The BBC dismisses the demand and says the situation is descending into farce. Although Dr. Kelly's name has not been made public, in the course of the day lobby journalists become aware of his identity, and Downing Street confirms his name to the Times political reporting team. By 11.40pm, Dr. Kelly has been named on the Press Association's newswire.


On Day 100 of the War, on June 24th
Six British soldiers dead, eight hurt as a fragile peace fractures

Puzzle over death of military policemen in Iraq

Jamie Wilson, Richard Norton-Taylor, Michael White, and Michael Howard in Baghdad
Wednesday June 25, 2003
The Guardian

Six military police officers were killed and eight other soldiers wounded in two attacks in southern Iraq in the biggest setback to British forces since the war was declared officially over.

The bodies of the dead - the largest number of British military personnel to be killed by hostile fire since the war began and the first to die since April 6 - were recovered from the town of Majar al-Kabir, 15 miles south of Amara.

In an emergency statement last night the defence secretary, Geoff Hoon, told the Commons that the dead soldiers had been engaged in training the local Iraqi police.

He said local information suggested they might have been involved in what he described as "an incident" at the police station.

"I regret that at this stage I am unable to provide any further details. British commanders are obviously investigating the situation as a matter of urgency," Mr Hoon said.

In a separate incident at 7.30am troops from the 1st Battalion Parachute Regiment engaged in a routine patrol in the same town were ambushed by guerrilla forces.

Their two vehicles were attacked with rocket-propelled grenades, heavy machineguns and rifle fire from "a large number of Iraqi gunmen", the defence secretary told MPs.

The paratroopers returned fire and called for assistance. When a troop of Scimitar vehicles and an RAF Chinook helicopter arrived nearby they also came under fire.

Mr Hoon said eight British troops had been injured - one on the ground and seven in the helicopter - and were taken to 202 Field Hospital. Two have since been transferred to a US field hospital in Kuwait for "specialist treatment for very serious injuries".

Mr Hoon, who said an investigation was under way into whether the two attacks were connected, cautioned against reaching wider conclusions about the security situation in southern Iraq, and promised coalition forces "will not be deflected from their efforts by the enemies of peace".

But British commanders began a review of their peacekeeping tactics in the face of what one military source described as attacks from "pretty organised opposition".



On Day 98 of the War, on June 22 2003
George Bush addresses increasing national disquiet over the number of US servicemen killed in Iraq. More than a quarter of US casualties have occurred since the president declared an end to major military combat on May 1.
Bush forced to defend rising US death toll

On Day 95 of the War, on June 19 2003
One American soldier is killed and two are injured when the military ambulance they are travelling in is struck by a rocket-propelled grenade.
US soldier killed in Iraq grenade attack

On Day 94 of the War, on June 18, 2003

US troops kill demonstrator  

US troops fired on protesters here today, killing a former Iraqi soldier, as a British minister warned that lack of security 10 weeks after the fall of Baghdad was hampering rebuilding efforts.
It was the first time that US soldiers fired on a crowd of angry demonstrators in the Iraqi capital since it fell to the US-led coalition on April 9.

The crowd of up to 300 former soldiers was demonstrating at coalition headquarters in central Baghdad and started throwing stones at American troops, who opened fire, said an AFP correspondent at the scene. A US army spokesman refused to comment.

One of the protesters, Essam Mansur Hussein, a 49-year-old officer under the ousted regime, warned that they were now prepared to take up arms against the US troops occupying the city. "Every day we come to protest peacefully, but it's useless. In the coming days it will not be peaceful. They have to realise that if we have nothing to eat there will be Feyadeen (militia) operations every day.

The former soldiers were demanding payment of salaries still unpaid three weeks after the top US civil administrator in Iraq, Paul Bremer, officially dissolved the Iraqi army on May 23. Bremer, the top US overseer in Iraq, last month abolished the Iraqi army and the network of security services which propped up Saddam Hussein's regime, announcing that a non-political army would be created.

In London, International Development Secretary Baroness Valerie Amos said today she has postponed a trip to Iraq because of the threat of a guerrilla attack by Saddam loyalists. Amos said that the security situation in the country was hampering rebuilding efforts.


On Day 93 of the War, on June 17 2003
Scores of American troops mount new searches through Baghdad after a sniper shot dead a US solider on patrol.
Sniper adds to US toll in Iraq

On Day 91 of the War, on June 15 2003
Hundreds of American soldiers sweep through Falluja in a further, apparently more precise, operation against guerrilla resistance.
Policing Iraqis tests US troops

On Day 89 of the War, on June 13 2003
Almost 100 Iraqis are killed in two of the bloodiest attacks since the fall of Baghdad. A independent research group meanwhile says that as many as 10,000 civilian may have died in the war.
100 Iraqis killed in violent clashes
War may have killed 10,000 civilians, researchers say

On Day 88 of the War, on June 12 2003
US troops questioning about 400 suspects after the biggest military operation in Iraq since the regime collapsed two months ago.
US moves in on Iraq's resistance

On Day 86 of the War, on June 10 2003
The all-party parliamentary intelligence and security committee serves notice that it expects ministers to cooperate fully with its inquiry into Iraq's banned weapons programme.

Hans Blix, the UN chief weapons inspector, meanwhile lashes out at the "bastards" in who he says tried to undermine him throughout the three years he has held his high-profile post.
MPs chastise No 10 over 'dodgy dossier'
Blix: I was smeared by the Pentagon

On Day 84 of the War, on June 8 2003
David Blunkett becomes the most senior minister to admit publicly that Downing Street was wrong to publish the "dodgy dossier" on the military threat posed by Saddam Hussein.
Blunkett admits weapons error

On Day 82 of the War, on June 6 2003
Hans Blix hits out at the quality of intelligence given to him by the United States and Britain on Iraq's alleged chemical and biological weapons programmes. "Only in three of those cases did we find anything at all, and in none of these cases was there any weapons of mass destruction, and that shook me a bit, I must say," he says.
Blix criticises weapons intelligence

On Day 80 of the War, June 4 2003
Tony Blair rejects calls for an independent judicial inquiry into the case for the Iraq war.
Blair rules out judicial inquiry

On Day 78 of the War, June 2 2003
Tony Blair faces mounting pressure from across the House of Commons to hold an independent inquiry into the Iraq war after Clare Short levelled the incendiary allegation at the prime minister that he had lied to the cabinet.
Short: Blair lied to cabinet and made secret war pact with US

On Day 75 of the War, on May 30 2003
Military police question a British soldier about photographs of alleged "torture" of Iraqi prisoners of war, including one gagged and bound, and dangling in netting from a fork-lift truck.
Soldier arrested over Iraqi torture photos

On Day 74 of the War, on May 29 2003
Tony Blair's Iraq crisis deepens as ministers accused of distorting the findings of the chief UN weaponsinspector to support Britain's claims about Saddam weapons programme.
Ministers 'distorted' UN weapons report

On Day 72 of the War, on May 27 2003
Two US soldiers are killed and nine injured in an attack on an army checkpoint in the Iraqi town of Falluja.
Two US soldiers killed

On Day 68 of the War, May 23rd

Colonel Collins: new inquiry into how he ran regiment
Fresh claims prompt MoD to launch second investigation

Richard Norton-Taylor
Friday May 23, 2003

The Guardian

The Ministry of Defence is to conduct a far-reaching inquiry into the Royal Irish Regiment, the unit commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel Tim Collins, the officer at the centre of allegations that he seriously mistreated Iraqis in the recent war. This inquiry is entirely separate from an investigation by the military police into allegations made by a US army major that the senior British officer pistol-whipped an Iraqi civil leader - a claim the ministry suggests is an exaggeration; shot at the feet of Iraqi civilians; and shot at the tyres of vehicles when there was no threat to his soldiers.

Allegations of a culture of bullying in the Royal Irish Regiment were prompted partly by the suicide of Paul Cochrane, 18, in Armagh in 2001. His family told the Guardian they believed the army owed them a full explanation as to how a happy teenager living out his childhood dream of being a soldier was suddenly pushed to such an extreme measure. Sources spoke of an "extreme culture of bullying by some senior officers", but Col Collins did not intervene.

Earlier this month, the Northern Ireland-born officer gave an interview to the News of the World, which reported Col Collins' "legendary exploits". It described how he told a looter to stop stealing vital equipment. The man carried on, so the colonel took out his sidearm, shot out all four of the man's lorry tyres and bellowed: "What part of 'No' don't you understand?" He described Ba'ath party officials who "were threatening people who cooperated with us so we paid some of them a visit". He added: "One man found that a shot through his kitchen floor somehow helped him remember where his weapon was hidden." The Iraqi allegedly attacked by Col Collins was also subjected to a mock execution, it was reported today. Ayoub Yousif Naser, a member of Saddam Hussein's Ba'athist party, told the Times that after he was hit by the colonel he and his son were lined up facing a wall. He heard the officer give the order to fire before he saw other troops approach with bandages to treat their wounds.


On Day 67 of the War, on May 22 2003
The UN security council votes 14-0 to lift sanctions on Iraq and hand temporary control of the country to the US and Britain. Syria boycotts the vote.
UN mandate oils wheels for reconstruction of Iraq

On Day 60 of the War, on May 15 2003
Foreign secretary, Jack Straw, concedes that hard evidence of weapons of mass destruction might never be found in Iraq. He says it is "not crucially important" to find them because the evidence of wrongdoing was overwhelming.
Straw retreats on finding banned weapons

On Day 59 of the War, on May 14 2003
Human rights workers accuse the US military of failing to protect and properly excavate the largest mass grave discovered in Iraq. More than 3,000 bodies were dug up in a field near the ancient Babylonian city of Hilla, south of Baghdad.
US accused of failing to protect mass grave

On Day 58 of the War, on May 13 2003
A mass grave is found near Baghdad. It could hold the remains of up t0 15,000 people, missing since a Shiite uprising in 1991. British-trained microbiologist Dr Rihab Taha, known as "Dr Germ" for her role in Iraq's biological weapons programme, surrenders to coalition forces.
Iraq's 'Dr Germ' surrenders to coalition forces

On Day 57 of the War, on May 12 2003
The new head of the US-led interim administration arrives in Baghdad as the foreign secretary, Jack Straw, concedes that progress towards restoring order in the Iraqi capital was "not satisfactory".
New US chief takes control in Baghdad

On Day 56 of the War, on May 11 2003
Iraqi agriculture is on the brink of collapse, with fears that many of its 24.5 million people will go hungry this summer, according to a confidential report being studied by the UN's Food and Agriculture Organisation.
Iraq in danger of starvation, says UN

On Day 53 of the War, May 8th

2 US soldiers killed in Baghdad

Criminal courts reopen in still-perilous capital

By Charles A. Radin and Patrick Healy, Globe Staff, 5/9/2003

BAGHDAD -- Two US soldiers were killed yesterday in separate attacks in the Iraqi capital, one shot at close range as he sat in an Army vehicle and the other hit by a sniper, military officials said.

No information was available last night on the identities of the slain Americans. In one incident, a US soldier said, a man walked up to a military vehicle on a bridge, pulled out a gun, and shot the victim in the head. The soldier, speaking on condition of anonymity, said that many Iraqis had approached the Americans at the scene trying to sell them things. ''We can't tell who is a vendor and who isn't,'' the soldier said. US soldiers said that an arrest had been made in connection with the killing, but they were not clear whether the person arrested was the suspected killer. Low-flying helicopters continued to comb the area long after the incident.

In the second attack, a US soldier was killed when a sniper shot him in the head in east Baghdad, Captain Tom Bryant, spokesman for the Army's Fifth Corps, which is based at Baghdad's airport, told the Associated Press. He had no further details. McKiernan said that disarmament of Iraqi civilians is a priority for coalition forces and the reconstituted police. He said 250 truckloads of ammunition and weapons have been removed from Baghdad recently.

Autopsy suggests British cameraman killed in Gaza shot by Israeli gunfire By Peter Enav, Associated Press, 5/8/2003 08:16

JERUSALEM (AP) A British cameraman killed last week in the Gaza Strip was shot from the front, according to an autopsy that suggests he was hit by Israeli troops.

The autopsy report was released Thursday by Israel's national forensic institute.

James Miller, 34, a prize-winning documentary filmmaker, was shot in the neck Friday in the southern Gaza city of Rafah while he and his crew were filming Israeli troops on a search operation for weapons-smuggling tunnels.

Associated Press Television News footage showed the crew waving a white flag and yelling that they were British journalists as they approached an armored Israeli army bulldozer.

Witnesses said that an Israeli tank opened fire at the journalists, but the army denied that tanks were in the area. The army said it came under fire from rocket-propelled grenades and returned fire.

On Sunday, the army said that Miller had been shot from behind, raising the possibility that he had been shot by Palestinian gunmen, not Israeli troops.

But the forensic institute said Thursday an autopsy showed that Miller had been shot from the front. The army said Thursday that it had not received the report and had no comment.

The local Foreign Press Association, the British Foreign Office, the Paris-based Reporters Without Borders and the New York-based Committee to Protect Journalists have called for investigations into Miller's death.

On Day 50 of the War
BBC News, Monday, May 5, 2003
James Miller was well-respected

 In the southern troublespot of Rafah on the Gaza Strip, British journalist, cameraman James Miller, 34, from Devon, England was shot in the back while filming a documentary. The award-winning journalist was filming a documentary on the effect of terrorism on children for the American cable giant HBO.The killing of reporters in war zones should be made a new war crime after his death.  

Initial findings from an Israeli Defence Forces investigation into the affair indicate that the correspondent was shot in the back, with sources suggesting that he may have been hit by Palestinian gunfire. 

Another Briton who had been with Mr Miller said they were waving a white flag and moving towards an Israeli armoured vehicle when it opened fire.  Aidan White, general secretary of the International Federation of Journalists, said the Israeli army must not be allowed to "brush aside" Mr Miller's death with their "routine and callous expressions of regret".  The Israeli army said it had returned fire after being attacked by rocket-propelled grenades and expressed "sorrow at a civilian death".

But a spokesman added: "It must be stressed a cameraman who knowingly enters a combat zone, especially at night, endangers himself."

Palestinians show their solidarity
Palestinian journalists have showed their support

Mr White, whose federation operates on behalf of about 500,000 journalists globally, said there must be a full inquiry into Mr Miller's death, a call echoed by the Foreign Office.

On Day 42 of the War, Wednesday, April 30th
Al Fallujah,, Iraq--
There were more Killings in  Al Fallujah, the "City of Mosques", as U.S. troops fired into a crow of Iraqui civilians. As the crowds became louder and more insistent, the American troops fired into the crowd and killed 13 people and injured more than 20 more according to doctors at the local hospital. The American troops said they were fired on; but all other witnesses at the scene denied the gunfire came from the demonstrators. Today, 2 more people were killed and more injured, with the Muslims of Al Fallujah and the city officials saying no one shot at the Americans, the American troops claiming otherwise.
On Day 28 of the War, Wednesday, April 16th
Three Iraqis were killed and 11 wounded during a shooting in Mosul, and some victims said U.S. troops shot at them. A Marine sergeant denied that, saying American troops shot back after coming under fire from nearby gunmen. So Many deaths since our Peace Vigil in Marblehead on the Eve of War, one month ago, March 16th.
On Day 27 of the War, Tuesday April 15th
Iraquis demonstrate against a meeting to rebuild war-torn Iraq to be held in Nasariyah.
Hundreds of Iraqui Shia's demonstrated , saying their leaders had not been invited to the meeting.
On Day 26 of the War on Iraq, Monday, April 14, 2003
(right) a US soldier sits in a chair at Uday, Saddam's private wing in Baghdad's main presidential palace. 
The Baghdad Library was burned by mobs.
The damage is great, the loss stupefying to the residents
of Baghdad, who plead for our armies to stop
he wanton destruction of the city.
It was revealed by a Harvard University Busch Reisinger Museum archaelogist today that scholars of art and antiquities for the middle east had met with the Bush administration before the bombing of Baghdad began, and the U.S. government had promised to preserve and protect Iraq's National Museum, which houses one of the greatest art collections in the world. They are deeply disturbed that nothing was done to protect these priceless art objects, in age up to 3,000 years old.  Professor Elizabeth Stone of SUNY reveals that we may never recover the thousands of Mesopotamian  sculptures and inscribed stone reliefs. These priceless art objects were stolen by a highly professional group, armed with glass cutters and  special detonating devices to blow off vault doors.  Not one American tank nor one American soldier was present when the art thieves  entered the museum under cover of the looting mobs --they knew exactly which pieces were real, and which were copies, and only stole the valuable items.  See further  notes on the looting of the museum in my "War Crimes" essay.

On Day 23 of the War on Iraq, Friday, April 11, 2003

  • The Iraq National Museum was looted. The museum featured priceless artifacts dating back more than 5,000 B.C. Reporters visiting it found empty glass cases, many of them smashed, and bits of broken pottery and sculpture.

  • Residents in a Baghdad neighborhood complained that U.S. soldiers haven't cleared cluster bombs dropped during the war. The residents said three people were killed and one injured trying to pick up them up.
  • U.S. Brigadier General Vincent Brooks holds up a deck of playing cards with pictures of Iraquis most wanted by the U.S. The deck will be issued to help troops recognize the faces of personalities "they can pursue, capture of kill".

Are we playing with a full deck?

What is going on in the minds of these Pentagon people that they think it's cute to not only demonize Iraqui leaders, but to invoke card-game symbolism  for a process that is serious, monumental, and has grave effect on  the  international rule of law, for human rights, and for a country's ability to maintain its own autonomy? All of these serious issues are glossed over  and characterized as trivial  by the Pentagon's issuing a deck of playing cards. Our government is actively engaged  in the killing of national leaders and the occupation by our armies, and then the "replacement" of  the "despised and discredited" regime (by us) with individuals and groups we help to put in place. Since the military's seizure of major cities in Iraq, "our behavior" (coalition political and military leaders' behavior )   illustrates a contempt for the Iraqui people and culture.  Our  coalition "leaders"  stand by, allowing and encouraging frenzied mobs of poor, oppressed, uneducated men to ransack and destroy Iraqui society's assets  -- its schools, mosques , doctors' offices, research scientists' laboratories, professional offices, and most symbolically -- the ransacking of the national Museum's vaults of all the priceless art tresures and rare, irreplaceable artifacts from civilizations 5,000 years old. We are like the Goths, the Visigoths, and the Vandals,  sacking the city. The mindless mentality of the conqueror.

War Crimes -- Massive Bombings and the Sacking of Bagdad 

The sacking of Bagdad was committed by our military forces, de facto, by allowing frenzied mobs to loot and vandalize.  This is a war crime. Especially, the destruction of the National Art Museum. Great Centers of art and antiquities which house such treasures, like the National Museum in Bagdad, are protected by the Geneva Convention. During World War II, it was agreed by all parties not to bomb or shell Florence, Italy, and the world's great art treasures were preserved.  Even without the looting and vandalizing behavior which occurred this week, the United States and Great Britain and other  coalition governments were already guilty of violating the Geneva Convention.  Blair and Bush are responsible for destroying these priceless cultural treasures, by the reckless and wanton, indiscriminate  massive bombings of Bagdad. The bombs themselves were so heavy, so powerful, weighing often up to 2,000 pounds each,  that they  created enormous vibrations that cracked and shattered the fragile artwork which had survived thousands of years.  Thousands of pieces in the museum's vaults weredamaged beyond repair by the bombings alone -- artifacts from Mesopotamia, Sumeria, Babylon, the cradle of all civilization.  What have we become?  --mcw. 

On Day 20 of the War on Iraq, Tuesday, April 8, 2003

Pentagon sources says that over 30,000 bombing sorties have been flown.


Battle of Bagdahd
left:  warriors resting in Hussein's bombed out palace
below:   Today, three journalists died and three were wounded in three separate incidents in Bagdad.  Left,  Al-Jezeera TV anchor  moments before he was killed by U.S. forces when the Al Jezeera Media Headquarters  was bombed. Right, a Spanish  cameraman is fatally wounded at the Palestine Hotel which came under shelling by U.S. tanks. The third incident reportedly involved the American bombing of Abu Dabi television station.


On Day Nineteen of the War On Iraq, Monday, April 7th
Are we feeling liberated yet?


April 7th from the Los Angeles Times:
Today  Police fired on unarmed citizens protesting the War on Iraq in Oakland,  California.  The police fired "Sting Balls" and "Wooden Batons"on the more than 500 protestors at the Oakland Port. More than one dozen protestors and six longshoremen were injured.  31 were arrested. Read the story below:


Is this the best we can do?
On the Tenth Day of War, Saturday, March 29th
*Coalition has dropped 6,000 precision-guided bombs
*U.S. has fire 675 Tomohawk cruise  missiles
*Coalition warplanes have flown more than 1,000 missions
 women of Basra lined up by U.S. Marines
 in a "security checkpoint" as they attempt
to flee the seige of Basra
*On Monday, March 31, soldiers opened fire at a vehicle  killing seven women and children and wounding two. The four other occupants of the vehicle were unhurt, according to the Pentagon.  William Branigin of the Washington Post says the vehicle contained 15 people, of whom 10 were killed and two seriously injured.  He also reports that soldiers at the checkpoint failed to fire warning shots in time. "You just [expletive] killed a family because you didn't fire a warning shot soon enough!" the paper quotes Captain Ronny Johnson as telling his platoon leader.


Left:   residents of Basra
flee the city on March 31, 2003
For more information on the status
of civilians in Iraq and the impact
this war has on their lives,
please check out the websites
listed below.

Doctors Without Borders. Good source for info on the humanitarian crisis inside Iraq and cost to human Iraqui lives.

"People Have the Power "  -- Feb 15th 2003
A spontaneous expression  by the citizens of the world,
 against War and against the destruction of   Our Sacred Mother Earth

below: Hyde Park, London       Madrid        Rome 
Istanbul,             Berlin,                 Amsterdam, 


above: London,       Dublin,         
below: Amsterdam,      Glasgow,      Athens over 800,000

above: Shetland Islands,    Tokyo,    Kuala Lampur
below: London, Wellington, New Zealand, Bordeaux, France 



row 1: Prague, New York & Los Angeles
row 2: Jakarta, Indonesia & Hattiesburg, Mississippi
row 3: Women of Bagdad and  and Seoul, South Korea

Arabs and Israelis together protest
the proposed War against Iraq
in Tel Aviv, February 15, 2003


Greenpeace Flag flies high
over Auckland on the day
of the start of the
America's Cup Race


Consider the Parallels with Vietnam

An Iraq War & Occupation Glossary


July 11, 2003 from "Counterpunch", a web zine

As the war in Iraq grinds on and American casualties mount, the situation there is increasingly coming to resemble the one in Vietnam some 35-40 years ago. We even have a Defense Secretary who, like Robert McNamara before him, is an over-confident egotist devoid of self-doubt and incapable of tolerating criticism, and who thinks himself so brilliant that he can outsmart a popular insurgency and overpower it with fancy weaponry. What makes this historic parallel particularly haunting is the return of terminology, some of which hasn't been heard in years. To help readers understand likely future developments in Iraq, here is a glossary of some of those terms:

Guerrilla war -- An unconventional conflict, in which the enemy can hide among the people, popping out to fire on U.S. soldiers and ducking back before he or she can be challenged or identified. Are we in a guerrilla war in Iraq? Ask Don Rumsfeld. His denials are starting to sound like his claims before the war about WMD's: empty.

Quagmire -- A sticky situation in which the military cannot hope to win victory, but cannot retreat for fear of losing the entire warSand face. Is Iraq becoming a quagmire? The latest testimony by Rumsfeld and Gen. Tommy Franks (who has, it is worth noting, quit his post as head of the military in Iraq before things can get worse and damage his reputation), is that at least 150,000 troops will be needed in Iraq "indefinitely."

Body count -- A tally of how many of our guys and their guys get killed each day. The U.S. body count has been averaging about one a day until recently, but now we're starting to see two people a day get hit, and larger-scale attacks are becoming more common. We haven't been getting the enemy body counts that used to be de rigeur (and massively inflated) at Pentagon press conferences during the Vietnam War, but as the U.S. body count mounts, the pressure will rise on the Pentagon to respond to public dismay by showing that the "score" of dead is always in our favor. (Obviously, the fact that 10 times as many Vietnamese troops were dying as Americans didn't affect the outcome of that conflict, any more than it is likely to affect the outcome of this one.)

Light at the end of the tunnel -- This gloomy image was popular for years in the White House and Pentagon during the interminable Indochina conflict. We haven't heard it used yet with respect to Iraq, but if "quagmire" starts to be more in vogue, can this grizzled phrase be far behind?

Search and Destroy -- This was a favorite tactic of U.S. forces in Vietnam. It had the effect of killing the occasional Vietcong or Vietcong sympathizer as well as many innocents. It also had the effect of driving entire rural populations into the arms of Vietnamese insurgents. Search and destroy efforts in Iraq are already having the same effect, as innocent bystanders get killed in droves each time the U.S. mounts a campaign. (Search and destroy is likely to be even more counterproductive as a strategy in Iraq than it was in Southeast Asia, given the Arab culture's tradition of eye-for-eye vengeance.)

Allies -- As in the Indochina War, the U.S. in Iraq is twisting arms to compel a few weak client states (in the Vietnam era it was Korea and Australia, now it's Poland, Bulgaria and maybe India, a particularly weird choice given that nation's fundamentalist Hindu government and its militant crackdown against Muslims), to send a token few troops to make the occupation and counterinsurgency look like an international effort. This is, in other words, not your grandfather's allies of World War II.

Letting Iraqi boys defend Iraq -- Nixon's "secret plan" to end the Vietnam War was to "Vietnamize" it. The strategy proved a dismal failure, because he was trying to get a corrupt government to battle committed nationalists. Current plans to create a new Iraqi army of 40,000 to fight with U.S. troops against Iraqi resistance are unlikely to fare any better. (Sound familiar? For a preview of how well it works, check out the performance of the new American-made Afghan "army.")

Winning hearts and minds -- This was what U.S. military efforts in Vietnam were supposed to accomplish. The idea was that somehow by napalming villages, terrorizing populations with high-tech weapons, defoliating cropland and littering it with hair-trigger anti-personnel bomblets, and then after all that distributing some goodies--chocolate bars, medicine and food rations for example--the people's hearts and minds would won over to the U.S. effort. This of course never happened in Vietnam, Laos or Cambodia. Now we're attempting the same thing in Iraq, where similar actions can be expected to produce similar results.

Vietnam Syndrome -- This term came into vogue among Republicans and neo-con Democrats directly after the U.S. defeat in Indochina. The idea was that the loss in Vietnam had soured American policy makers and the public on foreign military actions of any kind. The Bush administration's war-mongering in Afghanistan and Iraq was supposed to drive a stake through that syndrome, by offering an example of successful use of military force in promoting American foreign policy. With Afghanistan quickly returning to its pre-invasion condition of feuding warlords and anarchy (and continuing to prove a hospitable place for Al Qaida-type terrorists), and with Iraq becoming a guerrilla war quagmire that the U.S. has little hope of actually "winning," it seems Bush, Rumsfeld and National Security Director Condoleeza Rice are well on their way to reviving the syndrome, though it will probably eventually get a name change, to Iraq Syndrome. Another variant of Vietnam Syndrome was The Lessons of Vietnam, a phrase more popular among liberals). The irony is that the "lesson" of Vietnam (which was supposedly taken to heart too by Secretary of State Colin Powell), was that the U.S. should not get involved in future wars unless the objective was clear and the public was solidly behind it. Yet here we have a war that, like Vietnam, was entered into based on a series of lies to the American public, and that, like Vietnam, has no clear objective. Eventually, thousands of Iraqi and American deaths hence, we will, sadly, no doubt also be hearing about the Lessons of Iraq.

Peace with honor -- This was the semantic contortion that Richard Nixon attempted to use to disguise America's embarrassing defeat by the peasant army of Vietnam. Again, as the American public loses patience with the continued slaughter of American troops in Iraq, and the lack of progress there towards some resolution of the conflict, we can expect Bush and Rumsfeld to come up with some version of peace with honor to describe their eventual humbling retreat from Iraq.

Escalation -- During the Vietnam war, escalation was the term used for upping the intensity of the fighting. Whenever the U.S. found itself starting to lose the war, presidents, from Kennedy to Nixon would "escalate" the U.S. effort, adding troops and expanding the field of battle, first to North Vietnam, then to Laos, and finally to Cambodia. The more they escalated, the worst they got trounced. We're already hearing the term escalation applied now to Iraq. So far, it's the Iraqi resistance that has been escalating the fighting since the collapse of the Saddam Hussein regime. Inevitably, though, unless the U.S. decides to declare peace with honor and quit Iraq, we can expect to see the U.S. begin escalating the counterinsurgency effort, with the addition of more troops and more aggressive search and destroy tactics.

The Draft -- One big difference between the Vietnam War and the current war in Iraq is that during the decades of the Southeast Asian conflict, the U.S. had a draft, and consequently an almost unlimited supply of soldiers to throw into battle. The U.S. military now, which numbers about 1 million, is largely dependent for front-line combatants upon reservists and National Guardsmen. Already some one-third of U.S. forces are directly committed to the war effort in Iraq, counting the 150,000 actually stationed in Iraq, and the 200,000 who play supporting roles in Kuwait and other regional countries. Given the enormous back-office operation required by today's technologically complex, highly bureaucratic, and managerially top-heavy U.S. military, there is actually little in the way of more troops that could be assigned to this conflict should it escalate in intensity. Moreover, with morale crumbling among the reservists and guard troops in Iraq, most of whom are older than typical soldiers in a draft army, and who have left behind jobs and families, the U.S. is facing a serious manpower crisis, just in terms of replacing current troops in the field. If it doesn't turn to a draft, it will have a hard time recruiting more reservists and guard troops, since most people join those units to make a little extra money, not to actually have to go overseas and fight. If it does restart the draft, popular support for war, such as it is--in Iraq or anywhere in the world--will evaporate completely. (The mechanism for a draft--the Selective Service office and local draft boards, and a lottery machine to allocate priority numbers by birthdate--is already in place, and a national call-up could happen within 30 days of a Congressional vote authorizing a return to compulsory service.)


Iraq War Diary -- Wednesday September 24, 2003
Iraq: the reality and rhetoric

Rory McCarthy reports from al-Jisr, scene of the killing of three farmers at hands of US troops

The Guardian

It was the middle of the night when the crack paratroopers from America's 82nd Airborne Division arrived outside Ali Khalaf's farmhouse in the parched fields of central Iraq.

Some of the family were asleep on mattresses in the dirt yard outside the single-storey house. Ali's brother Ahmad lay there with his wife, Hudood, 25, and their two young sons and so they were the first to hear the soldiers as they approached the house at around 2am yesterday.

"We heard voices and so my husband went out to check what was happening. We thought they were thieves," said Hudood. "My husband shouted at them and then immediately they started shooting."

By the family's account, the troops of the 82nd Airborne - known proudly as the "All American" - opened up a devastating barrage of gunfire lasting for at least an hour. When the shooting stopped, three farmers were dead and three others were injured, including Hudood's two sons, Tassin, 12, and Hussein, 10.

Yesterday a US military spokesman in Baghdad, Specialist Nicole Thompson, insisted that the troops came under attack from "unknown forces". The "unknown forces" ran into a building, which was surrounded by the troops who then called in an air strike. "I can confirm at least one enemy dead," she said.

The US military has chosen not to count the civilian casualties of the war in Iraq. But while more than 300 US soldiers have now been killed since the invasion to topple Saddam in March, thousands more Iraqis have died.

The US military likes to advertise its achievements: how their patrols in the troubled town of Falluja, a few minutes drive from Ali Khalaf's farmhouse, hand out colouring books and repaint schools and how elsewhere they repair broken water mains and sewage plants.

Most of the time it matters little. In the heartlands of central Iraq, home to the Sunni Muslim minority, and now too in the Shia-dominated provinces of the south, there is less and less sympathy for the American military and their allies.

The growing wave of frustration comes only in part from the few loyalists who still fight for Saddam Hussein and increasingly from a population affronted and humiliated by the same American tactics employed yesterday.

Though Sunnis, Ali Khalaf's family can have benefited little from Saddam's rule. Their homes are humble, with little electricity and only brackish drinking water. Five brothers share a few acres of farmland where they grow just enough wheat and cucumbers to survive.

As mourners gathered in a tent outside the farm yesterday, the family walked through the yard, enclosed by a brick wall and pointed out where the "enemy dead" were killed.

"There was no shooting from the house. It was the soldiers who shot at us," said Hudood. "There was so much firing and shelling we couldn't even get out of the farm."

Four thin mattresses still lay in the open air, close to the house and stained in blood. Just a few feet away were two large craters caused, the family explained, by missile strikes from the jet fighters called in as air support. The two young boys were injured on the mattresses and then carried bravely inside by Hudood.

Together the family tried to count the number of bullet holes in the wall of the farmhouse that bore the brunt of the attack. There were at least 90, perhaps 100. Outside in the fields lay dozens of the small 5.56mm bullet casings cast out by the US military's M16 assault rifles.

It was probably one of these bullets which hit Ali Khalaf in the chest. He crawled inside the first room of the farmhouse apparently looking for a strip of cloth to improvise a bandage.

He slumped to the floor just below the shattered glass window and next to an old wooden chest and there he died. A large pool of his blood lay caked to the floor of the room yesterday, chunks of plaster torn off the wall by the gunfire lay close by.

Hudood rushed her children into the second room of the farmhouse. She sat on the ground next to the bed with her children

"I covered my children in my arms and brought them close to my chest. I covered them with blankets, I thought perhaps it would help protect them," Hudood said. "They are just small children. One of them said to me: 'Don't cry mummy. We have got God with us.'"

Next to her on the floor was her cousin Saadi Faqri, 30, who was staying in the house and ran to help her. During the shooting, a rocket or a large piece of shrapnel ripped through the wall of the bedroom, past Hudood and the children, and struck Saadi in the chest. He slumped on the floor and died.

The third man to die, Salem Khalil, 40, was a neighbour who came running to help when he heard the shooting. His body was found lying on the ground outside.

Eventually the shooting stopped, the soldiers pulled back and then they called in the air strike. At least seven missiles were fired but only one hit the house, tearing through the ceiling of an unoccupied storeroom.

Yesterday morning the villagers of al-Jisr gathered to bury their dead in the large graveyard by the main road. At the same time, US military officers arrived at the farmhouse, took photographs, gathered shell casings and, through a translator, briefly apologised to the family. The words meant little.

"My brother was a polite and decent man. He was poor and we had only enough farmland to survive," said Ali Khalaf's brother Zaidan, who lives nearby.

"None of us are interested in politics, none of us worked in Saddam's regime. We got nothing from Saddam.

"I swear we don't have any weapons in our homes and we don't have any intention to fight the Americans. But the Americans have become a heavy weight on our shoulders. They don't respect human beings, they humiliate the Iraqi people. They promised freedom and democracy. Is it freedom to kill people, make bloodshed and destroy our house? Is that what they mean by freedom?"

Coalition Casualties during the Occupation of Iraq since May 1st
US Central Command has reported the deaths of 80 American service personnel in Iraq since 1 May when President Bush declared that major combat was over.

Of the dead, at least 40 were killed in combat, typically in ambushes involving rocket-propelled grenades (RPG) and sniper attacks.

In the same period, UK forces lost six servicemen - all members of the Military Police who were attacked in a village about 160 kilometres (100 miles) north of Basra.

The following entries are based on day-to-day Central Command news releases and do not cover war-related casualties outside Iraq or the possible deaths of soldiers succumbing to their wounds at a later stage.

24 July:Three soldiers (101st Airborne Division) are killed after coming attack from gunfire and rocket-propelled grenades in northern Iraq.

23 July: A soldier (Third Armoured Cavalry Regiment) dies and two are wounded in an attack near Ramadi, west of Baghdad.

23 July: A soldier (101st Airborne Division) is killed and seven are wounded when an explosive device strikes their vehicles outside Mosul.

22 July: A soldier (Third Armoured Cavalry Regiment) is killed in a grenade attack on the road between Balad and Ramadi.

21 July: A soldier (First Armoured Division) is killed when his vehicle comes under attack in northern Baghdad.

20 July: A soldier is killed and two are injured in a vehicle accident near Baghdad International Airport.

20 July: Two soldiers from the 101st Airborne Division are killed in a grenade attack in Tal Afar, near Mosul.

19 July: A soldier (First Armoured Division) is killed in a grenade attack in the Abu Ghuraib area of Baghdad

18 July: A soldier (Third Infantry Division) dies and three are injured when his vehicle passes over an 'improvised explosive device' west of Falluja.

16 July: A sailor (First Marine Expeditionary Force) dies from a 'non hostile gunshot wound' in Hamishiya.

16 July: A soldier (Third Corps Support Command) is killed and three are injured in a rocket propelled grenade attack near Abu Ghuraib prison in Baghdad.

15 July: A soldier (First Marine Expeditionary Force) dies after falling from the roof of a building he was guarding in Hilla

14 July: A soldier (Third Infantry Division) is killed and ten are wounded in the Mansor district of Baghdad during a grenade attack on a US convoy.

13 July: A soldier is killed near Ad Diwaniyah in a road accident involving a tractor.

12 July: A soldier (Fourth Infantry Division) dies of gunshot wounds following a 'non-hostile incident' in Baghdad

9 July: A soldier (Fourth Infantry Division) dies of a gunshot wound in a 'non combat incident' in Balad

9 July: A soldier (Fourth Infantry Division) dies and another is wounded in a grenade attack on their convoy in Baghdad

9 July: A soldier (Third Corps Support Command) is killed by small arms fire when a convoy is ambushed near Al Mahmudiyah

7 July: A soldier (101st Airborne Division) dies from gunshot wounds in a 'non combat incident' in Balad.

7 July: A soldier is killed when an explosive device strikes his vehicle while on patrol in Kadhimyah, Baghdad.

6 July: A soldier (First Armoured Division) is killed during a firefight between his platoon and Iraqi gunmen in the Ad Hamiyah area of Baghdad.

6 July: A soldier (First Armoured Division) dies after being shot in the head on the Baghdad University campus.

3 July: A soldier (First Armoured Division) is killed in Baghdad when a Bradley vehicle comes under sniper fire.

3 July: A soldier (First Armoured Division) dies of gunshot wounds in a "non-combat" related incident.

2 July: A Marine (First Expeditionary Force) dies and three are injured while conducting mine clearing operations in Karbala.

2 July: A US soldier dies from wounds received when his convoy was hit by an improvised explosive device in Baghdad the previous day.

28 June: The remains of two soldiers missing since 25th June are recovered 20 miles outside Baghdad.

27 June: One soldier (First Armoured Division) killed and four injured in a grenade attack in the Thawra area of Baghdad.

26 June: One soldier (First Marine Expeditionary Force) killed in ambush while investigating a car theft in Najaf.

26 June: One special forces soldier killed and eight injured in a 'hostile fire' incident in south-west Baghdad.

25 June: One soldier (First Marine Expeditionary Force) killed and two are injured when their armoured vehicle overturns as they rush to help colleagues under fire.

24 June: Soldier (First Armoured Division) dies in a "non-combat incident". No details given.

22 June: One soldier (First Armoured Division) killed and one injured in a grenade attack on a military convoy south of Baghdad, in Khan Azad.

19 June: One soldier (804th Medical Brigade) killed and two injured in an RPG attack on a military ambulance in an area north of Camp Dogwood in the town of Iskandariya.

18 June: One soldier killed (First Armoured Division) and one wounded in a gun attack at a petrol distribution plant in Baghdad.

17 June: Soldier (First Armoured Division) mortally wounded by sniper in north-west Baghdad.

16 June: Soldier (First Marine Expeditionary Force) dies of "non-hostile gunshot wound" in An Najaf.

15 June: Soldier mortally wounded in "an apparent non-hostile incident" in the Taji area. No further details given.

13 June: One soldier (V Corps) dies and eight are injured in an armoured vehicle rollover accident 20 kilometres south of Asad Air Base.

13 June: Soldier drowns while swimming in lake near Falluja.

10 June: One paratrooper (82nd Airborne Division) killed and one injured in RPG attack in south-west Baghdad.

8 June: Soldier shot dead while manning a traffic control point in Qaim.

7 June: One soldier killed and four wounded in RPG and gun attack near Tikrit.

6 June: One soldier killed and two injured in a vehicle accident about 35 kilometres north of Baghdad.

6 June: Navy Seabee (serving with the First Marine Expeditionary Force) killed handling unexploded ordnance in Kut.

5 June: One soldier (101st Airborne Division) killed and five wounded in Falluja in an RPG attack.

2 June: Soldier (Fourth Infantry Division) mortally wounded in RPG and gun attack near Balad.

30 May: Three soldiers die as result of vehicle accident between Mosul and Tikrit.

29 May: Soldier "killed by hostile fire" while travelling on a main supply route. No further details.

27 May: Two soldiers killed and nine wounded in RPG and gun attack in Falluja.

26 May: Soldier drowns "after diving into an aqueduct" south of Kirkuk.

26 May: One soldier killed and three injured when their vehicles runs over mine or unexploded ordnance. No further details.

26 May: One soldier killed and two injured in a collision with a tractor.

26 May: One soldier (Third Armoured Cavalry Regiment) killed and one wounded in ambush on their convoy near Hadithah, about 193 km north-west of Baghdad.

25 May: One soldier killed and one injured in an apparent accidental blast at a former Iraqi munitions dump.

21 May: Soldier killed in vehicle accident near Baqubah.

19 May: All four crew members killed when Sea Knight helicopter crashes in the Shat Hilla Canal. One marine drowns while trying to rescue the crew.

19 May: One soldier killed in traffic accident near Safwan.

18 May: One soldier killed and one wounded in traffic accident near Samawa.

18 May: Soldier (Fourth Infantry Division) dies of "non-hostile gunshot wound".

17 May: One soldier killed and three injured while detonating unexploded ordnance in Baghdad.

14 May: One soldier killed and two injured in traffic accident near Irbil.

13 May: One soldier killed in accidental munitions explosion near Hilla.

12 May: Two soldiers killed in accidental munitions explosion.

9 May: Three soldiers killed and one injured in helicopter crash near Samarra.

8 May: Soldier killed by lone gunman in Baghdad.

4 May: Soldier dies in apparent suicide.

3 May: Soldier dies in apparent accidental shooting.

1 May: Soldier killed in traffic accident near Habbaniya.

Interview with Neville Watson: Life in Baghdad  this
Neville Watson, Iraq Peace Team


7 April 2003

Neville Watson is a lawyer and Uniting Church Minister from Australia and is presently with the Iraq Peace Team in Baghdad. He answered a series of questions for IPT.

Question: What is life like for you in Baghdad?

Neville Watson: It's not all that bad. The bombing is frightening at first, especially when you feel the building move beneath your feet. Some of the bombs seem to burst in the air. Others seem to come up from underneath your feet. Some of the group go to the basement each night. Others of us stay in our rooms on the basis that average Iraqis have no basement in their homes. The idea of us being here is to be with the Iraqi people in some small way as they suffer an unjust, unnecessary, and unconscionable war.

Question: Are you still free to move around?

Neville Watson: No. No longer! It's a lock down situation and we can only go out with a minder. The Iraqi people are as gracious as ever and when I go shopping there is always much laughter and good naturedness. I came across the first touch of hostility the other day when I was visiting a hospital and the father of an injured little 5 year old said with feeling: In the name of democracy you kill our children!, which was a fair comment. All I could do was to say I am sorry. I am so very sorry., and in so doing I fulfilled one of the reasons for me being up here, to apologise for the brutality of the Australian Government. What we in the Iraq Peace Team are trying to do is to identify with the suffering of the Iraqi people and apologise for our part in it.

Q: Has there been much damage from the bombing?

Neville Watson: A lot. The accuracy of bombs and missiles is as over-rated as they were in the Gulf War, and when they go astray they cause terrific damage. The death and the personal injury to innocent civilians is horrific and it disturbs me that it is not being shown on television in America and Australia. This is a deliberate strategy of the military machine and the establishment, because if people generally saw the mangled and burned bodies of innocent women and children they would demand a stop to the war.

Q: Have you personally seen instances of the damage?

Neville Watson: Of course. We have visited many hospitals and many sites. That is the advantage of being up here. Where you stand determines what you see, and we see a terrible lot of suffering. This isn't a war against Saddam Hussein. It is a war against the country of Iraq and its people. I don't know who the genius was who dreamed up the phrase Shock and Awe for this senseless bombing but it certainly is shocking.

Q: The Generals say that they try and avoid civilian casualties...

Neville Watson: I do not doubt this but civilian casualties are the name of the game. When war is waged it is not soldiers who are the primary casualties, it is women and children. Look up the statistics of any war. No politicians, no generals, some soldiers and tens of thousands of innocent women and children. Don't talk about 'war crimes' to me. War itself is the crime because it destroys the lives of innocent men women and children.

Q: Are you sure that the damage was caused by American and not Iraqi missiles?

Neville Watson: As sure as I can read. We recovered parts of missiles with part numbers on them and the words Radom not paint. I've no idea what radom is but it certainly isn't Arabic.

Q: What would be your chief concern at the moment?

Neville Watson: I think it would be the hypocrisy and the distortion of the facts by the Americans. Let me give one of a dozen examples I could give. Donald Rumsfeld says that showing prisoners of war on television is against the Geneva Convention. This is the guy who runs Guantanamo Bay which is the most blatant violation of the Geneva Convention of the century. The occupants there are now killing themselves as they recognise they are forgotten people with neither military nor human rights. They are nobodies. Showing prisoners of war on television may be distasteful but it sure beats Guantanamo Bay!

Q: Where do you see Australia fitting in all of this?

Neville Watson: It's very sad. Australia wasn't included in the Azores summit because it is obvious to all that Australia is now adequately represented by the United States. Our Prime Minister is now reduced to fatuous phrases like It is in the national interest. What nation? We have sold our birthright for a free trade agreement. The Australian of the year for me is the pilot who refused to drop his bombs on non military targets. He is the toast of the Iraq Peace Team and I am basking in his glory. I'd very much like to know his name so that at his court martial he gets good legal representation for what was a courageous and legal action.

Q: How long will you be up there?

Neville Watson: I do not know. Nobody knows what is going to happen. Our aim is to be a nonviolent presence in a very violent place. We share a common humanity with the Iraqi people and as my ten year old granddaughter says, our aim is to comfort the Iraqi people as the Americans bomb them. How long that is going to be? I do not know but they are sure copping it at the moment. And if the Americans think that they can win the hearts and minds of the Iraqi people by bombing them, the only ones they are fooling are themselves.


Baghdad's hospitals in crisis

Last Updated:  Monday, 7 April, 2003, from the BBC

An injured man arrives at the al-Kindi hospital in Baghdad
The wards were already full before last Saturday's US incursion
Hospitals in Baghdad are being overwhelmed by new patients, are running out of medicine and are short of water and electricity, the Red Cross has said.

The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), which is still operating in Baghdad, says the war is stretching the capital's medical resources to their limit.

Around the city, casualties have been admitted on an average of 100 per hour, with staff working day and night.

Wards at the five major hospitals treating wounded were already overflowing with injured when American troops made their first incursion on Saturday.

Surgeons have been working round the clock for two days... Conditions are terrible
Roland Huguenin-Benjamin, Red Cross spokesman

Medicines such as analgesics, antibiotics, anaesthetics and insulin, as well as surgical items are now running out.

ICRC spokesman Roland Huguenin-Benjamin said of the al-Kindi hospital in north-eastern Baghdad: "Surgeons have been working round the clock for the past two days and most are exhausted. Conditions are terrible.

"You could hear very close range explosions. The windows are rattling from the thud of explosions."

Al-Kindi was the only hospital the ICRC could reach on Monday.

Mr Huguenin-Benjamin said hospitals were now relying on generators and that getting clean water to patients was a priority.

The World Health Organisation (WHO) has warned of a health emergency both in Baghdad and in the country as a whole.

Work suspended

The struggle to treat the injured in Baghdad has been complicated further by the disappearance of two aid workers from Medecins Sans Frontieres (MSF) in Baghdad.

Vulnerable people
Woman visitor at Baghdad's al-Kindi hospital
Almost half of Iraqis are aged under 18 and many suffered malnutrition before the war began
Most Iraqi families are entirely dependent on monthly food handouts - due to run out by May

MSF's head of mission in the city, 43-year-old Frenchman François Calas, and Ibrahim Younis, a 31-year-old logistician of Sudanese descent, were last seen on Wednesday.

In a statement released on Monday, MSF said it had to assume that Iraqi officials were holding the two men.

The four remaining members of the six-strong MSF team are still in the Iraqi capital.

MSF's Martyn Broughton told BBC News Online that the team had suspended its work at al-Kindi in response to the disappearance.

Stephen Crawshaw, director of Human Rights Watch in London, told the BBC he was concerned at possible siege tactics in Baghdad, as they might involve "starvation and failure to have access to water".

"It is certainly worrying if we hear talk of ways of prosecuting this war where the concerns of civilians are, if you like, put to one side," he said.

The US military command has talked of "isolating" Baghdad, where the Iraqi Government is still putting up resistance, rather than storming it.

Limited success

ICRC spokeswoman in Geneva, Antonella Notari, told the BBC the organisation might need to bring extra supplies into Baghdad from warehouses in Iran, Kuwait, Jordan or Syria, depending on the length of the fighting, the number of new casualties and security guarantees.

Man admitted to al-Kindi hospital
Hospitals are relying on generators and have fears over water supply

In general, aid agencies have had only limited success in shipping food relief to Iraq, notably to the Kurdish north, although a United Nations team is now assessing conditions at the deep-water port of Umm Qasr in the south.

Caroline Hurford, a public information officer at the UN World Food Programme's Cyprus-based office for Iraq, told BBC News Online that food aid was reaching the north but security concerns were holding up deliveries in the south.

Some 25,000 people in rural areas have received wheat flour - the critical commodity for Iraqis - since lorries carrying 850 metric tons reached Dahuk at the weekend, and a further 1,000 tons is on its way to Irbil.

The WFP has about 30,000 tons of food aid ready to be moved into the south of Iraq, but is waiting for security clearance at Umm Qasr.

The UN's children's agency Unicef has been tankering water to hospitals and other facilities in the area between Umm Qasr and Basra for several days, Anis Salem, Unicef's communications chief in Amman, told BBC News Online.

Tanker drivers report that with electricity down in many areas, hospitals are badly affected and cases of diarrhoea among children are on the increase.


Enter subhead content here

Rally in London to stand in silence for war dead

Sarah Hall, political correspondent
Friday April 11, 2003
The Guardian

Anti-war protesters are to go ahead with a mass demonstration in London this weekend despite the apparent successes of coalition forces in Iraq.

Up to 400,000 campaigners are expected to converge on Parliament Square and stand in silence to draw attention to the 1,500 Iraqis who have died in the conflict, and to highlight their concern at a new "neocolonial" regime.

Walking under banners proclaiming Stop the Killing, the protesters - stung by criticism that the anti-war movement has "melted away" - will lay flowers and wreaths outside Downing Street.

They will then attend a Hyde Park rally where speakers will include MPs Tam Dalyell and George Galloway, both of whom face having the Labour whip withdrawn because of their anti-war comments.

Stop the War coalition, which is organising the rally, is adamant that public opposition has not diminished and that, despite scenes of apparent jubilation at the dramatic toppling of Saddam Hussein's statue, Iraqis view this as the "final humiliation" by coalition forces intent on introducing a regime they believe will be no better than Saddam's.

Speaking at a press conference in Westminster, Andrew Murray, the coalition's chairman, said: "We are very much going ahead with the demonstration on Saturday.

"The number of deaths is in four figures and is scheduled to rise still higher and so our central demand to end the war and the killing is now more important than ever."

He added that the number of coaches booked for the march and support at meetings suggested opposition had barely diminished since the last rally on March 22.

"I don't think support is falling off. All our indications are this will be a very big demonstration because millions of people still reject the policies of this government and a neocolonial peace."

Anas Altikriti, an Iraqi and an official of the Muslim Association of Britain, said that Iraqis viewed Ahmad Chalabi, leader of the exiled Iraqi National Congress, as no better than Saddam.

"All the signs show that we will be left with a puppet regime, governed by corrupt, fraudulent figures who have no credibility in the country, a repeat of the regime the Iraqi people were lingering under for 30 years," he added.


The Alleuvial Marshland, A Fragile Ecoregion
Following are 4 articles on the ecology of the alleuvial marshland of Iran/Iraq, the confluence of the Tigris and Eurphrates Rivers. This area has been severely damaged by the first Gulf War, by Hussein  draining its waters for a decade, and the last blow may be the imminent war with its massive ordinance.
Also, I have written an essay about my personal affinity to the alleuvial marshland as a place of great mystery and beauty.   To read my essay, click on:
Bird Caught in Oil Slick
The Gulf War, Iraq

Foes urged to spare Iraq's wildlife

By Alex Kirby
BBC News Online environment correspondent

(right) Victim of the 1991 war: A greater flamingo (Image: Colin Mills/ BirdLife International)

Any war in Iraq should be fought in ways that protect its wildlife, conservationists say. BirdLife International has sent the UN Security Council and the Iraqi Government details of the main environmental threats from a war.

It says the impacts would affect local people, and would persist for a long time afterwards. BirdLife is urging potential combatants to avoid deliberately targeting or damaging globally important wildlife and habitats. It has sent a dossier of information, maps and photographs to the government in Baghdad and to the five UN Security Council permanent members - China, France, Russia, the UK and the US.

The dossier, which explains the environmental threats to people and sites, has also gone to the UN Environment Programme (Unep), and is available on the internet.  BirdLife is a global alliance of non-governmental national conservation organisations, and works in more than 100 countries. Icon of conflict  Its director, Dr Michael Rands, said: "Until recently the impact of war on nature has often been ignored or obscured by the conflict itself.

"As the 1990-1991 Gulf war showed, such conflicts have devastating effects on the environment, biodiversity and the quality of life of local people long after the cessation of hostilities. "It was the heart-rending image of an oiled bird that became a symbol of the environmental impact of the first Gulf war. BirdLife hopes images of oiled birds do not once again fill our television screens in 2003."

BirdLife's dossier is based on the environmental damage reported in 1991, and on data from the more recent conflicts in the Balkans and Afghanistan.

Iraq's endangered white-headed duck (Image: Dr Tony Martin)


It identifies several risks to natural habitats, which will also affect people:

  • 1.   physical destruction and disturbance from the use of weapons
  • 2.  toxic pollution from oil spills or oil well fires through fighting or deliberate damage
  • 3.  radiological, chemical or toxic contamination from the use of weapons of mass destruction or conventional bombing of military or industrial sites
  • 4.  physical destruction of wildlife and habitats because of increased human pressure caused by mass movements of refugees.

Other risks, BirdLife says, include the burning of vegetation; the extinction of endemic species (those found nowhere else); and the armies' role in damaging the deserts. Record destruction  Mike Evans visited the Gulf for BirdLife in 1991. He said: "Waders and waterbirds will be particularly at risk from oil spills.  "Iraq is at the northern end of the Gulf, one of the top five sites in the world for wintering wader birds and a key refuelling area for hundreds of thousands of migratory waterbirds during the spring and autumn."

BirdLife says the 1991 war saw "by far the largest marine oil spills in history, with six to eight million barrels of crude oil spilled, severely polluting 560 kilometres (350 miles) of coast, and totally obliterating intertidal ecosystems".  Iraq is home to one endemic wetland bird, the Basra reed warbler, and to five endemic or near-endemic marshland sub-species. It has 42 important bird areas, and the Mesopotamian marshes endemic bird area. Expropriated people BirdLife says the marshes shrank between 1991 and now from 15,000 sq km (3.7m hectares) to about 50 (12.25 thousand ha).

The deliberate destruction of the marshes by Iraq, according to Unep, was devastating, "with significant implications for global biodiversity from Siberia to southern Africa". The bandicoot rat and a sub-species of otter are believed to have been driven to extinction as a result.  On the human scale, the Ma'dan people who have lived in the marshes for 5,000 years have lost their traditional homeland..

A dead green turtle.


Marsh lands of Iran and Iraq are nearing final collapse  By BBC News Online's environment correspondent Alex Kirby

A stark metaphor of accelerating environmental change, the marsh- lands of Iran and Iraq are nearing final collapse.  The largest wetland in the Middle East, they have shrunk by about 90% since 1970.  The United Nations Environment Programme (Unep) says the impacts on humans and wildlife are "devastating".

It compares what is happening to "the drying of the Aral Sea and the deforestation of large tracts of Amazonia".

Unep has documented the marshes' precipitous decline by analysing Landsat satellite imagery.  The analysis, it says, "graphically documents the stunning scale and speed at which the wetlands have disappeared, confirming the most pessimistic scenarios". By May 2000 most of the marshland was barren, with only a small and rapidly shrinking section remaining, part of the Al-Hawizeh marsh which straddles the Iran-Iraq border. Desert

Unep has produced a report, Demise of an Ecosystem: Disappearance of the Mesopotamian Marshlands, which is to be released later this year. It says the drying out of the marshes, which used to cover 15,000-20,000 square kilometres where the rivers Tigris and Euphrates meet in southern Iraq, has two main causes: dam building upstream, and drainage schemes.

The report says: "The Tigris and the Euphrates are amongst the most intensively dammed rivers in the world. "In the past 40 years they have been fragmented by the construction of more than 30 large dams, whose storage capacity is several times greater than the volume of both rivers.  "The immediate cause of marshland dewatering, however, has been the massive drainage works implemented in southern Iraq in the early 1990s, following the second Gulf war.

"Recent satellite images provide hard evidence that the once-extensive marshlands have dried up and regressed into desert, with vast stretches covered by crusts of salt." The report says about a fifth of the estimated half-million Marsh Arabs are now living in refugee camps in Iran, with the rest displaced in Iraq. Cultural threat  Describing the Marsh Arabs as "a distinct indigenous people", Unep says: "A 5,000-year-old culture, heir to the ancient Sumerians and Babylonians, is in serious jeopardy of coming to an abrupt end."

The report says the destruction of the marshes is having devastating effects on wildlife, "with significant implications to global biodiversity from Siberia to southern Africa". It says: "Mammals and fish that existed only in the marshlands are now considered extinct. Coastal fisheries in the northern Gulf, dependent on the marshlands for spawning grounds, have also experienced a sharp decline."  One otter sub-species and the bandicoot rat are believed to have become globally extinct.

But Unep has not abandoned all hope. The author of the report, Hassan Partow, told BBC News Online: "The situation is obviously bleak, but there are examples around the world of marshlands that have been revived.  "It's happened in Cameroon and the US, for instance. The immediate need is to conserve what's left on the Iraq-Iran border, and then to reconsider the engineering works, especially those built as flood defences in the 1950s.  "They're now largely redundant, and that opens up the possibility of reflooding the marshes.  "All the same, it's easy to destroy and much harder to create. And the marshes represent thousands of years of evolution."

Jerome Le Roy is director of the Amar Foundation, a humanitarian agency working with the Marsh Arabs. He told BBC News Online: "The main responsibility for what's happened lies with the Iraqi Government.  "We know it's technically possible to reverse the situation. But you also need goodwill downstream, to stop building dikes and damming the marshes. And we have recent evidence that the Iraqis are still continuing the destruction."


Tigris-Euphrates Alleuvial Salt Marsh:  A Fragile Ecoregion 
by the World Wildlife Fund, 2001


Satellite view of the alluvial marsh

 at the confluence of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers,

on the border of Iraq and Iran               

(Photograph by USGS)


Flooded Grasslands and Savannas13,700 square miles (35,600 square kilometers) -- about twice the size of New Jersey

Living in the Marshes .     In this cradle of civilization, shallow freshwater lakes, swamps, and marshes are surrounded by desert. This is one of the most important wintering areas for migratory birds in Eurasia.

Special Features .          At the northern end of the Persian Gulf is the vast floodplain of the Euphrates, Tigris, and Karun Rivers. It includes huge permanent lakes, marshes, and ahrash forest of poplar and cedar species growing on the banks and islands of these mighty riverways. The aquatic vegetation of this ecoregion includes reeds, rushes, and papyrus, which support large numbers of water-loving species. Water birds stop here while migrating, and some even spend the winter in these marshes living off the lizards, snakes, frogs, and fish. Water buffalo, two endemic rodent species, and several other mammals also call these marshes home. In the 1980s this ecoregion was put in grave danger as the Iran-Iraq War raged within its boundaries.

The Asiatic water buffalo is mainly a grazing animal, eating mornings and evenings and lying in dense cover or submerged in wallows during the heat of the day. Females and young buffaloes usually hang out in small groups, often with a single adult male, but an older female leads them.

Wild Side .          A scientific survey of the ecoregion revealed that more than 79 species of waterfowl, including pelicans, flamingoes, and ducks, use this ecoregion as their principal wintering area. This area may support more than two-thirds of the wintering waterfowl in the Middle East. Wild Asian water buffaloes still roam the marshes of the ecoregion as well. These animals are the ancestors of domesticated water buffalo and are associated with wet grassland, swamp, and heavily vegetated river valley habitats. Unique to these wetlands are two species of mammals: Bunn's short-tailed bandicoot rat and the Mesopotamian gerbil. Other mammals found in the ecoregion include wolves, common otters, and a subspecies of smooth-coated otter. However, these species are shy, so only a very patient observer will catch a glimpse.

Cause for Concern.          Large-scale water diversion projects are rapidly degrading the Tigris-Euphrates marsh ecosystem. Changing the rivers flow with canals, dikes, and dams has cut off the water flow to extensive marsh areas, causing them to dry up. In addition, drainage canals flush salt from irrigated lands into the wetland system, increasing salt levels in the area. Regional conflicts and increased human settlement have also greatly increased pollution of the wetlands. All of these factors contribute to habitat loss and degradation.  Unfortunately these marshes currently have no form of legal protection.


Marsh Arabs

TED Case Studies, American University, Trade & Environment Database, The Mandala Projects

CASE NUMBER:        189
        CASE NAME:          Marsh Arabs and Water Loss


far left:  A Marsh Arab today
near left: His Sumerian ancestor 3,000 years ago

1.         The Issue

     Since the Gulf War, various news reports, essays, and
critiques have been published concerning the physical devastation
brought about by coalition force bombing attacks.  No doubt, the
ruinous aftermath remains a very important environmental, economic,
and cultural concern.  One of the more important internal problems,
however, has been quietly unfolding over the past four years.  It
involves an attempt, by the Iraqi Government, to force the Ma'dan
people (roughly 500,000 of them), the so-called 'Marsh Arabs,' out
of their southern wetland settlements by literally "draining life
from Iraq's marshes."  Reaching beyond the social and political
ramifications, the permanent environmental and economic damage
caused by this policy may be irreversible.  By diverting the water
flow of one of the most famous and important river systems in the
world (the Tigris/Euphrates), the Iraqi leaders appear to be
tampering with not only their environment but with their historical
legacy, as well.
2.         Description
     The idea of draining the marshlands of southern Iraq is not a
new concept, and certainly not the first time the Tigris-Euphrates
river system has been harnessed for man's use.  The delta/marsh
area "was probably the first region of the world where humans
gained mastery over major rivers.  Irrigation and flood protection
were vital to the farmers who fed the inhabitants of the world's
first known cities, built in Mesopotamia more than 5,000 years
ago."  The marshlands region was part of this development.
     Over the years, as technology improved, dams were built to
harness water and energy for irrigation and electricity.  Within
Iraq, there are at least four dams on the Euphrates and three major
dams on the Tigris, which are contributing heavily to a water
shortage in the area.
     The first major marsh-draining scheme was proposed in the 1951
Haigh Report, "Control of the Rivers of Iraq," drafted by British
engineers working for the Iraqi government.  "The report describes
an array of sluices, embankments and canals on the lower reaches of
the Tigris and Euphrates that would be needed to 'reclaim' the
marshes."  The study's senior engineer, Frank Haigh, felt that the
standing marsh water was being wasted, so he "proposed
concentrating the flow of the Tigris [River] into a few embanked
channels that would not overflow into the marshes.  He proposed one
large canal through the main `Amara marsh."  In this way, Iraq
would be able to "capture the marsh water for irrigation" purposes
to aid in feeding the newly created State of Iraq.
     Construction of the large canal, called the Third River, began
in 1953.  Further construction took place in the 1960's.  It was
not until the 1980's, however, during the Iran-Iraq War, that major
work was resumed.  Today, many of the water projects in the marsh
area bear a striking resemblance to the Haigh Plan -- the only
problem is that the projects are not being used for agricultural
     Various international organizations such as the U.N. Human
Rights Commission, the Supreme Council of the Islamic Revolution in
Iraq (SCIRI), the International Wildfowl and Wetlands Research
Bureau, and Middle East Watch have been monitoring the Iraqi
situation.  All have found evidence to indicate that the Iraqi
Government has been attempting to force the Ma'dan people from
their homes through water diversion tactics copied from the Haigh
Report.  Iraq's majority Sunni government is attempting to weaken
the Ma'dan because they are Shiite Muslims, maintaining religious
links with Iran's Shiite leadership.  They have also been accused
by the government of harboring refugees from oppression in
     Since the end of the Gulf War, the above-mentioned
organizations have uncovered the following intelligence:  1) By
1993, the Iraqi Government was able to prevent water from reaching
two-thirds of the marshlands.  2) The flow of the Euphrates River
has almost been entirely diverted to the Third River Canal,
bypassing most of the marshes.  3) The flow of the Tigris River has
been channeled into tributary rivers (with artificially high
banks), prohibiting the tributary water from seeping into the
     As a result, the environmental effects are thought to be
"irreversible with disastrous ecological, social and human
consequences for the region."  The sparse water remaining has
contributed to the salinization of the land.  "Over-irrigation and
poor drainage compound the problem:  as the stagnant water
evaporates, it leaves behind a crust of salt."   The future for
wildlife in the region looks bleak, as well.  The marshes are home
to fish and migratory birds from western Eurasia such as pelicans,
herons and flamingos.  Without fresh water, the ecosystem will
easily become damaged.
     In economic terms, the effects are just as severe.  The
marshlands region, is home to various crops, trees and livestock.
The staple crops of the region are rice and millet.  Date palms
from the area have played an important part in Iraqi exports as
well as the weaved reed mats and harvested cereals from the Ma'dan
people.  The marshes are also home to cows, oxen, and water
buffalo.  The recent scarcity of water in the marshlands has
contributed to transport problems, which has all but put a stop to
economic movement in the region.  "Instead of moving...goods by
boat the Ma'dan are often having to struggle through hip-deep mud
on addition, hundreds of thousands of inhabitants have
fled their areas.  If this process continues, Saddam Hussein will
become responsible for destroying not only the environment and
culture, but one of the oldest and most important links with Iraq's
past -- the people of the marshlands.
3.         Related Cases

     ISRAELH2 Case
     ATATURK Case
     ARAL Case

     Keyword Clusters
     (1): Bio-geography               = LAND, RIVER, DELTA
     (2): Environmental Problem       = HABITat loss, BIODIV
     (3): Trade Problem               = FOODs
4.         Draft Author:  Robert D. Cohen
B.         LEGAL Clusters
5.         Discourse and Status:  INPROGress
     The U.N. has been attempting to monitor the situation in the
southern marshes of Iraq.  The one piece of legislation applying to
the marshlands situation is U.N. Resolution 688, passed April 6,
1991.  "This resolution calls on the Iraqi government to provide
free access to United Nations and non-governmental humanitarian
agencies to all parts of the marshes so that essential humanitarian
assistance can be provided."  In January 1995, the European
Parliament (EP) also passed a resolution "characterizing the
[M]arsh Arabs as a persecuted minority 'whose very survival is
threatened by the Iraqi Government.'  The EP resolution described
the Government's treatment of the marsh inhabitants as
'genocide'."  In March 1995, the European Parliament adopted
another resolution deploring the continuing attacks on Marsh Arabs.
Furthermore, the U.N. Human Rights Commission, in March 1995,
passed a resolution calling for an end to military operations and
efforts to drain the swamplands. 
6.         Forum and Scope:  (OPEN) and REGION
     Since all of the environmental and economic damage to the
marshlands is yet to be seen, there has not been any formal legal
case brought before a forum at this time.  The United Nations,
however, appears to be the likely forum for legislative activity.
7.       Decision Breadth:  N/A
     If and when a law is passed, the decision breadth will
probably come from a multi-national organization, such as the U.N.
It is also possible that unilateral action will be taken against
Iraq's marshlands policy.  The United States has already (through
U.N. auspices) enforced a "no-fly" zone in the south in an attempt
to crack Iraq's inhumane activities.
8.         Legal Standing:  N/A
     As of this writing, no other legal proceedings have been found
that reveal any treaty or legislation aimed at curbing the
environmental or economic degradation of the Iraqi marshlands.  The
Iraqi government has not declared the lands as part of the RAMSAR
CONVENTION, "the international treaty that protects wetlands."
C.        GEOGRAPHIC Clusters
9.         Geographic Locations
     a.    Geographic Domain : MIDEAST
     b.    Geographic Site   : SMID
     c.    Geographic Impact : IRAQ
     The worst destruction is located in the southeast sector of
Iraq, between the cities of Amara, Nassiriyah, and Basra (in the
land of ancient Mesopotamia).  The `Amara Marsh, near the
confluence of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, is home to the
Ma'dan people.  The `Amara Marsh has been most affected by the
drainage scheme.
     Another geographical concern involves water shortage.  The
Middle East continually suffers from drought and water amounts are
always near critical levels.  "The region's accelerating
population, expanding agriculture, industrialization, and higher
living standards demand more fresh water."  Dam-building is
adding to the problem.  For example, Turkey just recently completed
building the Ataturk Dam [1993] on the Euphrates River.  This dam
is now capable of harnessing river water for irrigation and power
purposes.  Since 90 percent of the water for the Euphrates
originates in Turkey, any amount kept by Turkey will decrease
waterflows to other nations downstream (i.e., Syria and Iraq).
This is another reason why the Iraqi marshlands have been drying-
     There is no "legally binding obligation" to prohibit Turkey
from taking the river water.  Neighboring countries suffering
shortages can press for fair treatment by claiming "historical
rights of use", but this usually comes to no avail.  In the area,
Turkey, Syria, and Iraq have set up a "technical committee" to
share hydrological information, but it has made "no real
10.        Sub-National Factors:  YES
     Since the Iraqi Government is attempting to exterminate a
minority within its own borders, this issue can be defined as Sub-
National.  Most of the environmental and trade effects are Sub-
National, as well.
       People have been living in the area of the southern marshes
for thousands of years.  The ancestors of the Ma'dan (currently the
largest group of marsh dwellers, numbering around 500,000) were
"partly descendants of the Sumerians and Babylonians, although
their numbers have been augmented by immigrations and
intermarriages with the Persians on the east and the bedouins on
the west."  Before the marsh drainage, the lifestyle of the
Ma'dan centered around agriculture, particularly cultivating rice
and dates, weaving reed mats, raising water buffalo, and fishing.
A form of local commerce had developed involving mostly local
trade, supported by the use of small boats for transportation.
     Since the Ma'dan are Shiite Muslims (sympathizing with the
majority leadership in neighboring Iran), and the Iraqi Government
is made up of Sunni Muslims, tensions have been steadily on the
rise.  After the Gulf War ended in 1991, the southern Shiites, at
the urging of the coalition forces, started an uprising against
Saddam Hussein's government.  The uprising was immediately crushed
by Iraqi forces and the systematic drying of the land began due to
the fact that many Shiites who took part in the uprising fled to
hide in the marshlands!  Hence, the Ma'dan have been "flushed-
out" along with the rebels, "mercilessly", as part of the
government's revenge scheme.
11.        Type of Habitat:  DRY (delta area near Persian Gulf)


In 1977, Thor Heyerdahl sailed his boat
made of papyrus reeds
down the Tigris River.

D.         TRADE Clusters
12.        Type of Measure:  None
     United Nations trade sanctions have been placed on Iraq due to
its human rights violations, but no environmental or trade
restrictions have been passed to curtail its waterflow policies.
Perhaps, if the policy continues to drain the marshlands,
neighboring countries will begin to protest (i.e., Iran, Kuwait).
13.        Direct vs. Indirect Impacts:  DIRect
14.        Relation of Measure to Environment Impact
     a.  Directly Related           : NO
     b.  Indirectly Related         : YES  AGRICulture
     c.  Not Related                : NO
     d.  Process Related            : YES  HABITat loss
     Though there is no legislation dealing with the marshlands
environment, one can easily see how the relations might be drawn.
15.        Trade Product Identification:  FOOD, NOTH
     Crops involved are:  paddy rice and great millet.  Other
Products/items from the marsh area used in trade are:  grain
cereals, dates, fish and woven reed mats form the Ma'dan people.
Most of the trade has been internal (within Iraq), supporting the
Ma'dan people.  With the loss of valuable water, however, this
way of life is quickly coming to an end.  The water-based rural
economy of the Marsh Arabs is being exterminated.
16.        Economic Data
     Most of the damage is environmental in nature.  Water,
nevertheless, is becoming a highly valued commodity and its
unbridled drainage will certainly cause future problems.  Trade
sanctions (on oil) imposed by the United States, under UN auspices,
have hurt Iraq ever since the Kuwait invasion. The Iraqi
Government's continuing drainage scheme will only serve to prolong
the sanctions' enforcement.
17.        Impact of Measure on Trade Competitiveness:  N/A
     The impact of U.N. sanctions has already reduced Iraq's trade
competitiveness considerably.  For example, "before the imposition
of the oil embargo in August 1990, Iraq imported food and medical
products worth $3-4 billion a year.  The revenue available today
for those types of imports, including those arriving as contraband
from Jordan, Turkey, and Iran, does not exceed a billion
dollars."  More sanctions or legal actions could cripple Iraq
even further.
18.        Industry Sector:  CRAFT
     For hundreds of years, the Ma'dan have cut river reeds and
used them to produce mats, fences, and homes.  Reed has also been
used to make beds, cots, baskets and canoe poles.  Crafting reed
products has helped sustain the Ma'dan and has given them the
opportunity to barter with people from the surrounding countryside.
As the marshes are drained, and the Ma'dan are forced to flee their
homeland, this important part of their culture will disappear.
19.        Exporter and Importer:  N/A
     Besides products like dates and rice, the southern marsh
dwellers do not produce many items for export.  Most Ma'dan trade
has taken place within Iraq's borders.
20.        Environment Problem Type:  HABITat loss
     Due to the marsh draining, there is a large bio-diversity
problem.  FISH, BIRDS, and HUMANS are being displaced.  CROPS are
also being destroyed, as well as the LAND and the marshes
themselves.  The salinization of the land is polluting formerly
good agricultural areas, such as the land surrounding the `Amara
21.        Name, Type, and Diversity of Species
           Name:           FISH, BIRDS, HUMANS
           Type:           Animal
     This case can also be described as a Bio-diversity problem.
22.        Impact and Effect:  HIGH and STRCT
     The case has caused HIGH and immediate impact upon the
marshlands.  The LAND has suffered many of the effects and will
continue to do so as long as the ecosystem continues to
deteriorate.  The Ma'dan people are suffering HIGH impacts, as
23.        Urgency and Lifetime:  HIGH and 50 years
     If the marshes continue to be drained at the current rate,
they will probably become non-existent in another 50 years.
24.        Substitutes:  RECYC
F.         OTHER Factors
25.        Culture:  YES
     A way of culture is being snuffed out.  The Ma'dan are being
forced to leave their homeland and a link to the ancient past is
disappearing quickly.
26.        Trans-Border:  NO
     As of this writing, there has been no major outcry from
neighboring Iran about the marsh-draining or human displacement,
though the marshlands do border Iran.  However, about 650,000 Iraqi
refugees have crossed over the Iraqi border to Iran to escape Iraqi
military operations directed against them.
27.        Rights:  YES
     As mentioned above, the U.N. Human Rights Commission and
Middle East Watch have been monitoring the situation.
28.        Gender:  NO
29.        Geo-Politics:  YES
     Iraq has been accused of following through with its marsh-
draining project for military and political purposes -- not for
agricultural purposes, as the official line insists.  An official
Iraqi document in the possession of an Iraqi engineer who was
captured by resistance forces in the area, provides details about
what is transpiring in the marsh area:  "It contained instructions
to 'withdraw all foodstuffs, ban the sale of fish and prohibit
transport to and from the areas.' Mass arrests, assassinations,
poisoning the water and burning villages were also ordered by the
Iraqi regime."  Agriculture has nothing to do with what is
actually transpiring.
30.        Relevant Literature
Hazelton, Fran, ed. Iraq Since the Gulf War:  Prospects for
     Democracy (London:  Zed Books, Ltd., 1994).
Salim, S. M. Marsh Dwellers of the Euphrates Delta (London:  The
     Athlone Press, 1962).
Gleick, Peter H., Haleh Hatami, Peter Yolles.  "Water, War, and
     Peace in the Middle East:  Conflict Over Water Rights."
     Environment 36/3 (April, 1994).
Pearce, Fred.  "Draining Life From Iraq's Marshes."  New
     Scientist 138/1869 (April 17, 1993).
Rouleau, Eric.  "America's Unyielding Policy Toward Iraq."
     Foreign Affairs 74/1 (January/February 1995).
Vesilind, Priit J.  "The Middle East's Water:  Critical
     Resource."  National Geographic 183/5 (May, 1993).
"Iraq:  Down but not out."  The Economist 335/7909 (April 8, 1995).
Deutsche Press-Agentur (March 8, 1995).
Reuter EC Report (March 20, 1995).
U.S. Department of State Dispatch, March, 1995.


Women washing their clothes in the Tigris River


Marsh Arabs pray for peace
By Terri Judd
In southern Iraq

"The government is like a snake. If you go to it, it will attack you - just stay away," explained the marsh Arab, his weather-worn face expressively emphasising the wisdom of his words.

Years of persecution and deprivation - of watching their young men taken away to fight another war they barely comprehend - has taught the Shia Arabs who inhabit this desolate section of Iraq's western desert to maintain a low profile.

Marsh Arab family
A member of the 3rd Regiment Army Air Corps meets marsh Arabs

In recent days the British Army's CIMIC (civilian military cooperation) team has arrived to assess how these tribal farming communities are faring or even whether they are aware of the war raging around them.

Despite their remote way of life, they provide a vital link in the local food chain, selling their remaining wares in weekly markets.

The military's humanitarian arm is hoping to re-establish the supply route as quickly as possible, providing immediate necessities while building a foundation for the aid agencies which will follow.

Driving along the main route to Baghdad, a three-lane motorway now deserted bar military convoys and the odd battered pick-up truck, there is little evidence of life, whether human or vegetative, across the vast unbroken expanse of sand.

Marshes drained

It is only when the eye adjusts that countless perfectly camouflaged mud and brick dwellings, with reed or corrugated iron roofs, appear dotted across the landscape. Behind them lush green handkerchief-size plots provide a shock of vivid colour in an otherwise monochrome world.

Their marshes destroyed by the construction of canals, many of the indigenous Arabs fled to surrounding countries after the 1991 Gulf war.

Those who remained lend a new meaning to the adage that necessity is the mother of invention.

We just want to live a basic life and drink good water
Marsh Arab

An estimated 900 simple shacks - containing families numbering between five and 20 - cover huge acres of the land, split into tribes largely self-governed by the local sheikh.

Ancient generators, tied together with strips of cloth, rattle as they pump salty water through basic irrigation systems and around small plots which grow scarlet, plump tomatoes, small, rich green cucumbers, onions and melons - culinary luxury in an otherwise hand-to-mouth existence.

War has hit the marsh Arabs hard. Fresh water supplies have dried up - as has most of the flour with which they make the unleavened bread that comprises their staple diet.

'Army destroyed our farms'

Markets have closed down while the handful of government-supplied teachers in their one-room school fled a week ago, along with the doctor.

At the mere mention of the word peace, Sughaier - a father-of-three who looked decades older than his 45 years - kissed his bunched fingers and touched them to his forehead.

"Yes, my God. We want this over in a minute. We just want to live a basic life and drink good water. Thirty years ago it was much better. Now it is suffocating, taking our children to fight wars.

"Sometimes the army would just come here and destroy the farms. We didn't know why but you can't say no because you will die."

Marsh Arab family
Their lands drained by Saddam, marsh Arabs scratch a living

One of the few non-farmers within the hamlet community of a dozen houses, he collects and repairs tyres - so ancient they intermittently explode in the heat - for the rusty pick-up used to transport their wares.

Sughaier - too afraid to give his full name - was remarkably up to date with current events. Small radios bring in the news, passed swiftly by word of mouth amongst the men who gather in any available shade.

With the tact of a people who have survived apparently endless incoming armies, the men of the village praised Britain to the soldiers - still carrying weapons and in full body armour in anticipation of any resistance in the area - as well as Kuwait to the interpreter brought in from that country.

Many had sought jobs in the far wealthier state to the south before being forced to return through lack of work and threat of having their passports withdrawn.

They took our boys and put them in uniforms and sent them to war

In truth it was obvious they cared little for who was in charge of a country of which they see only a small patch.

"Whoever helps us, God bless him. War is not worth it, people die. We don't want it," said Sughaier.

Lifting the long shirt-like dish-dash most of the men wear, he showed off the crude, splintered wooden leg which replaced the one he lost in the Iran-Iraq war.

Memories of Shia rebellion

"They took our children to fight in all these wars. They took our boys and put them in uniforms and sent them to war. I can't count how many we lost. There are some houses with nobody left, just the mother and father," he explained.

Saddam Hussein, he said, had three armies, the feared Republican Guard, the regulars and the older men enlisted falsely to be part of the "liberate Jerusalem" force.

"This time the radio asked for people by name. If you did not go they would come and pick you up," he said.

There are undoubted memories of the Shia rebellion, which was brutally crushed when the allies failed to come to their support after the 1991 Gulf war.

"People are frightened to speak," said one young farmer. "If Saddam survives he may shoot my family."

The task of bringing initial aid to these people falls to Captain Dai Jones, a 28-year-old from the Queens Lancaster Regiment, who heads up the CIMIC team attached to the 16 Air Assault Brigade.

More used to combat than aid work, he admitted initial scepticism about the humanitarian role he was asked to play.

They embarrass you with their generosity - if they have got three days worth of flour left they won't let you leave without taking some bread
Captain Dai Jones

Over the next few weeks he plans to liaise between the marsh people and the local villages, providing the former with a forum in which to sell their goods and buy flour, the latter with an opportunity to get hold of fresh produce.

He will also bring the clean water and medical care they requested.

"We want to give them the ability to help themselves more than anything. We will try and provide a short-term solution until the aid agencies can look into long-term measures.

"We received an amazing welcome. As one of the colonels said, they embarrass you with their generosity. If they have got three days worth of flour left they won't let you leave without taking some bread."

'We need water'

As Captain Jones and his team approached one house, a hesitant elderly-looking woman could be seen peering over the wall, a young baby wearing a woolly bobble hat in her arms.

While she ducked out of sight, her husband invited everyone in for tiny glasses of sweet tea, served in saucers bearing Japanese paintings.

"We just want to be left to grow our tomatoes. We need water and we need gas," explained the father-of-11.

He was most upset by the fact that one of the elderly men died this week without a shroud in which to bury him properly.

When asked where his allegiances lay, he was unwilling to publicly denounce Saddam Hussein, attempting instead to show support for the coalition forces with expressive eyes.

But as the group said their goodbyes, he gestured the interpreter into a side room before explaining in conspiratorial tones: "We don't like Saddam but we are afraid somebody from the government will come and harm us."

Asked why he did not feel he could express such sentiments within the confines of his own home, he simply pointed to one of the locals who had turned up at his door within moments of the soldiers' arrival.

  • This is pooled copy from Terri Judd of The Independent in southern Iraq.
  • endofarticle.jpg

    Monday, April 7th, 2003
    from "Doctors Without Borders"
    Press Release: April 4
    MSF Without News of Two Team Members in Baghdad

    Paris, April 4, 2003 Doctors Without Borders/Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) confirms being without news of two members of its team in Baghdad, reported missing since Wednesday evening (April 2). The four other members of the team are safe.

    These two volunteers belong to the 6-person team that has been present in Baghdad for several weeks. The team provided medical help to the medical staff of Al-Kindi hospital, in the northeast of the capital. All activities of MSF in Iraq have been suspended.

    At this point, MSF is not able to provide further information.

    News Update: April 1
    Report From Baghdad

    Last week, a team from the international medical humanitarian aid organization Doctors Without Borders/Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) joined their medical colleagues at the 250-bed Al-Kindi General Hospital in northeast Baghdad to help treat emergency injured patients. A surgeon, anesthesiologist, and emergency physician from MSF became integrated into a surgical and medical team, and will work 24-hour shifts every other day. On Tuesday April 1, one doctor, Morten Rostrup, President of MSF International, spoke to MSF through a journalist from Baghdad:

    For two days last week, when the sandstorm raged, you couldn't see for more than 200 meters, and sand was everywhere - in our eyes, ears, sand in our throats. And then there's smoke from oil fires that ring the city. By chance, rain cleared the air, but the bombings continue.

    The atmosphere has changed. When the war started, people in Baghdad tried to live a normal life, hoping to keep a pattern in a bizarre situation. But tensions are rising and the bombings intensify.

    We've seen some wounded so far, a range of civilian casualties, from very light wounds, to major traumas warranting operations, and some deaths. A lot of the injuries are from flying debris and metal pieces. It's difficult to judge when examining a patient whether bombs or anti-aircraft fire caused the injuries.

    A few days ago, parts of a wall fell on one woman, fracturing several bones in her face. Luckily there was no cerebral hemorrhaging. Yesterday, the hospital admitted 19 casualties, including several children. One child died in the operating theatre, while 3 other patients died shortly after arriving at the hospital. The main traumas were from shrapnel. Two days before we were present for two operations on boys who had shrapnel injuries in the abdomen. Luckily, there was no perforation of the intestines, just some less serious injuries of the liver and kidneys. These casualties frustrate and distress the team.

    The psychological trauma and shock from explosions has resulted in shock syndromes and stress-related chest pain, breathing problems, and strokes. We've seen an increase in heart attacks, as well. The situation is very tense and people are worried, they're afraid, they're staying in their homes, and most of the shops are closed. Some normal traffic continues on the streets, and our team is able to move back and forth between the hospital and our house in a quiet suburban neighborhood that has been spared for the most part. There are damaged homes in the city, and as we travel we often hear explosions.

    Up until now, al Kindi has been functioning well, with skilled local doctors, but there is a need for some specific drugs, especially painkillers and anesthetic drugs. MSF will re-supply these. Normal health services continue - people still need help with chronic health problems - and since war can disrupt supplies of all basic medical materials quickly, we will carefully monitor the situation and try to get more supplies when necessary.

    The doctors are experienced in trauma surgery, and are very committed to stay and work in the hospital. We are here to help if our medical colleagues need it. And if there is a battle around Baghdad, Al-Kindi could be a major receiving hospital of injured, so our presence may be important later as well.

    Morten Rostrup, MD

    Press Release: March 26
    Doctors Without Borders Relief Cargo En Route to Baghdad

    Amman, Jordan, 26 March 2002 The international medical humanitarian organization Doctors Without Borders/Medecins Sans Frontieres (MSF) sent two trucks of medical supplies for Baghdad from Amman, Jordan, today. The 10 tons of supplies include materials for 300 surgeries, post-operative medicines, water and sanitation supplies, and some nutritional material.

    An MSF team in the Iraqi capital is currently assisting staff at the 250-bed al-Kindi General Hospital in northeast Baghdad. An MSF surgeon, anesthesiologist, and emergency physician, will continue working alongside their Iraqi colleagues at the hospital in the coming days. Earlier, MSF donated some surgical materials from their current stock, and an emergency kit with enough supplies to treat 150 injured. Dressings for treating burn victims may also be provided if needed.

    "MSF has notified the relevant coalition and Iraqi officials about this convoy," said MSF midwife Catrin Schulte-Hillen from Amman. "For the moment, the al-Kindi staff is working hard to care for their patients, and MSF can provide help if it is needed. Sending back-up material like this is part of our normal operations for any war situation."

    Currently, MSF has a 6-person international team in Baghdad, consisting of volunteers from Italy, France, Austria, Norway, Sudan, and Algeria. MSF is also monitoring the situation as it develops from several neighboring countries, including Syria and Iran.



    Three doctors from Doctors Without Borders/Medecins Sans Frontieres (MSF) six-man team in Baghdad are integrated into 24-hour surgical and medical shifts every other day to assist their medical colleagues at al Kindi Hospital in northeast Baghdad, one of several hospitals designated as first-line treatment centers for emergency war-wounded in the city.

    While on duty Saturday, five emergency casualties arrived, 3 requiring immediate abdominal surgery. On Monday, the hospital received 19 casualties, many of them children, and some eventually died. Intense bombings continue, and the situation is deteriorating.


    Al Kindi is a teaching hospital in northeast Baghdad with about 250 beds, 60 senior doctors, plenty of residents and junior doctors, and main surgical specialties including Ear, Nose, and Throat and opthamology. Up until now, the hospital has been functioning well, especially in terms of doctors, but there are some shortages in painkillers and anesthetic drugs. MSF hopes to re-supply these.

    The al Kindi physicians are skilled and experienced in trauma surgery, and there are many surgical specialties available on a 24-hour basis. They are committed to staying and working in the hospital. MSF is there to support the staff if needed. Last Thursday, MSF doctors were integrated into a surgical and medical team, so they will now be at the hospital every other day in scheduled 24-hour shifts.

    In addition to war-wounded, normal health services continue at al Kindi - babies are born, people need help with chronic health problems. Elective surgeries have been delayed, though, and war quickly disrupts supplies of all basic medical materials, which is why MSF will try to send more supplies.


    MSF has seen only a very limited refugee or displaced movement towards Syria, Jordan, and Iran, and it is still not sure there will be many. People are leaving certain parts of Baghdad to areas that are less exposed, but there has not been a major flow of people either within or outside of Iraq.

    MSF has pre-positioned small teams and some material in many of the neighboring countries in the event of a refugee crisis. In Iran, MSF will provide for health needs at 2 camps (out of 10) Iranian authorities have established in Qas-re-Sherin and Kermanshah.

    MSF has also entered into agreements with Syrian authorities to provide for health and water and sanitation needs at a camp being prepared for 20,000 people at el Hol, near Hassake. These refugee camps are in the middle of the desert - which could be a burden in terms of water, cooking food, shelter, sandstorms, and extreme heat.

    And in Jordan, MSF continues to travel to the border, but there have only been a small number of third-country nationals who left Iraq shortly before and shortly after the war began.



    Los Angeles Times
    April 7, 2003
    Police Fire "Sting Balls" at Oakland Protestors:
    Other non-lethal weapons such as wooden dowels are used.
    A dozen demonstrators and six longshoremen are injured.
    31 people are arrested, police report.
    Police opened fire this morning with wooden dowels, "sting balls", and other non-lethal weapons at anti-war protestors outside the port of Oakland, inuring at least a dozen demonstrators and six longshorement standing nearby.
    Most of the 500 demonstrators at the port were dispersed peacefully, but police opened fire at two gates when protestors refused to move.  the longshoremen, pinned against a fence, were caught in the crossfire.
    The port protest was one of several anti-war demonstrations today in the San Francisco Bay area. Twelve people were arrested at the Concord Naval Weapons Station, and seven were arrested after temporarily blocking an off-ramp from Interstate 280 in San Francisco.

    The Rev. Lee Williamson of Hayward knelt quietly in prayer at the foot of one officer at the naval weapons station.

    "I think it's necessary to come to places that continue to fuel death and destruction," Williamson said. "I think the whole thing is immoral from the get-go."

    About 50 medical students, doctors and teachers demonstrated for two hours in front of Sen. Dianne Feinstein's office in San Francisco. In Sunnyvale, demonstrators planned to present a letter to Lockheed Martin opposing the use of that company's products in the war.

    And in Sacramento, nine anti-war protesters were arrested when they blocked the entrance to the federal building.

    About 200 of the port demonstrators later marched to the federal building in Oakland, blocking a street and chanting: "Out of the office and into the streets! U.S. out of the Middle East!" They were joined by Oakland City Council members Jane Bruner and Jean Quan.
    They should not have been using the wooden bullets," Bruner said. "Given what's happening in the
    " world today, we're going to be seeing more of this. And we should be prepared to handle it."

    Demonstrators said it was the first time they had been fired upon since anti-war protests started in the San Francisco Bay area more than two weeks ago.

    Oakland Police Chief Richard Word said the use of non-lethal projectiles was necessary to disperse the crowd. Some protesters threw rocks, set a bonfire and shut down the port, Word said.

    "In response to direct illegal action we've deployed non-lethal action," Word said.

    Word said his department would evaluate the use of the projectiles by his officers. The dowels are supposed to be shot at the ground and carom up to strike protestors, Word said, but some of those injured complained the officers took direct aim at them.

    Mayor Jerry Brown spoke with some people from both sides of the protest line about the police tactics.

    "We are always willing to support people's right to free speech, but we will not tolerate unlawful activities," Erica Harrold, Brown's spokeswoman, said on behalf of the mayor.

    "We are always willing to support people's right to free speech, but we will not tolerate unlawful activities," Harrold said on behalf of the mayor.

    Liz Highleyman, a San Francisco writer who has been at many of the major protests across the country in recent years, said the police response reminded her of the World Trade Organization riots in Seattle four years ago.

    "This is a level of injury as high as I've seen anywhere since Seattle in 1999," she said.

    Protesters said they targeted the Port of Oakland because at least one of the companies there, APL, is handling war supplies.

    APL spokesman Jerry Drelling declined to discuss the shipping company's military contracts. But he confirmed that APL participates in the U.S Department of Transportation's Maritime Security Program that pays commercial shipping lines for the right to take over their vessels during war.

    Oakland police said 31 people were arrested at the port.

    "Some people were blocking port property and the port authorities asked us to move them off," said Deputy Police Chief Patrick Haw. "Police moved aggressively against crowds because some people threw rocks and big iron bolts at officers."

    Police spokeswoman Danielle Ashford said officers fired bean-bag rounds and wooden dowels. They also used sting balls, which send out a spray of BB-sized rubber pellets and a cloud of tear gas.

    "When they hit you, it feels like a bee sting," Haw said.

    Six longshoremen were treated by paramedics, as were at least a dozen protesters -- some of whom had bloody welts the size of a silver dollar.

    "I was standing as far back as I could," said longshoremen Kevin Wilson. "It was very scary. All of that force wasn't necessary."

    Steve Stallone, spokesman for the International Longshore and Warehouse Union, said most of the dockworkers went back to work after the protesters left. A few were too shaken up to return.

    He said a union arbitrator was evaluating the situation, trying to determine whether the longshoremen should cross the protesters' picket line and go to work, when police started firing.

    "They didn't care," he said. "They just attacked the picket line. They declared it an illegal assembly and gave people two minutes to disperse. The police did not move to arrest anyone, they just started shooting."

    The San Francisco Bay area has been the site of some of the biggest and most boisterous anti-war protests in the country. In the first few days after the war began, there were more than 2,000 arrests when demonstrators blocked downtown streets and tried to seize control of the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge.


    On the Net:

    Protest organizers,

    Oakland police,


    Anti-war march: what the speakers said

    by Staff of the Guardian and agencies
    Saturday February 15, 2003

    Jesse Jackson

    The Rev Jesse Jackson insisted that it is "not too late to stop this war" and urged protesters to "march until there is peace and reconciliation".

    "War should be necessary as a last resort, and not pre-emptive, and it should have moral authority," he said.

    "Today, we can stop this war. It's cold outside, but our hearts are warm. All of you together are generating some serious street heat.

    "George Bush can feel it, Tony Blair can feel it: turn up the heat."

    He attacked the Bush administration, saying: "America is a great nation: better than the vision of our leadership," and urged Mr Blair to "listen to the voices of the British people". Ken Livingstone

    The Mayor of London, Ken Livingstone, launched a scathing attack on the US president, George Bush, during his address to crowds in London's Hyde Park.

    "This is a president who uses the death penalty with complete abandon and disregard for any respect for life. This is no example," Mr Livingstone said.

    "So let everyone recognise what has happened here today: that Britain does not support this war for oil. The British people will not tolerate being used to prop up the most corrupt and racist American administration in over 80 years.

    "If you listened to Tony Blair today ... he talked about giving more time to the inspectors, he talked about the need for a new UN resolution, and there's the weakness.

    "There are nations on the security council that are for sale. Nations who will be offered the liquidation of their debts and offered major grants. Let's watch the security council like hawks.

    "Let's not, having won the moral case and demonstrated the opposition of the world, lose this fight because of corruption and vote-buying on the security council." Tony Benn

    Labour MP Tony Benn said that anti-war protesters had "formed a new political movement" which would last beyond the Iraq crisis.

    "It's to stop a war in Iraq but it must be about other matters as well," he said.

    "It must be about the establishment of a Palestinian state. It must be about democracy in the Middle East - there is no democracy in Saudi Arabia or Iraq - and about some democracy in Britain as well, and letting parliament decide. "We are starting something really big, and our first task is peace in Iraq: but we must not stop until we have achieved the objectives which have brought us to Hyde Park this afternoon." Charles Kennedy

    The Liberal Democrat leader, Charles Kennedy, told the crowd that he was "not persuaded" by the case for war in Iraq.

    "The arguments have been contradictory and inconsistent," Mr Kennedy said. "The information has all too often been misleading as well as inconclusive. It's no wonder people are scared and concerned.

    "Given the evidence we heard yesterday in New York from Dr Blix, there can be, as we stand, no just or moral case for war against Iraq.

    "If we reach the stage, at some point in the future, where British troops are asked to enter some form of military conflict, that's got to be achieved in a democratic way.

    "The House of Commons should be given the right it so far has been denied: the right of a vote on whether it believes our forces should be sent into battle.

    He called on the prime minister to recall the commons when it is in recess next week and "make a full statement", and branded the Iraq crisis "the riskiest moment for Britain since Suez". Mo Mowlam

    Former Labour minister Mo Mowlam told the crowd that Mr Blair and the government had themselves in "a right corner" over Iraq.

    "Things can only get better if we stick together," she added. "Keep it peaceful. Because being peaceful, people will have no excuse not to listen.

    "There is a position now ... that if a country has a lot of people killed from poverty and military dictatorship, if that number is smaller than that killed by war then the war is OK. That, to me, is totally illogical." Harold Pinter

    The playwright Harold Pinter described the US as "a country run by a bunch of criminals ... with Tony Blair as a hired Christian thug".

    "The planned attack on Iraq is a pre-meditated attack of mass murder," he added. "Resistance is embodied today in this massive gathering, and the word I want to direct to Tony Blair is resign, resign, resign." Bianca Jagger

    Bianca Jagger accused the prime minister of "listening to President Bush rather than the voices of the British people".

    "We want to live in a world where peace, democracy and security are enshrined in the UN charter," she added.

    "I would like to see democracy in Iraq, but not by carpet bombing Iraq and killing innocent civilians."

    Voices from the march:
    A teacher, marketing manager and Greenham Common veteran speak

    Sarah Left, Gwladys Fouché and Sally Bolton
    Saturday February 15, 2003

    Jenny Brealey, 53, a teacher from Whitstable, Kent

    We must do everything we absolutely can to stop the war. I've come here today with a conviction that we must stop the war. I've given up thinking that Tony Blair will listen to anyone. So while I hope there won't be a war I feel there will be. The atmosphere here is fantastic. Michael Johnson, a marketing manager from London

    I marching today with my family because I don't think the case has been made for war against Iraq. I think the evidence is inconclusive - the whole thing started with September 11 and Osama bin Laden and now we're going into Iraq. I don't think the two things are linked.

    I think the case was better made for the war in Afghanistan. That was a kneejerk reaction and they just went in because they were looking for Osama bin Laden and that could have been justified by the atrocity in New York, I just don't the case has been made for an attack on Iraq. And if there is one where is it going to stop - we've heard that North Korea have got nuclear weapons, or are going to develop weapons, so does that mean we are going to go in their next.

    I hope marching today makes a difference but I'm not optimistic. The show of strength today has shown the outrage of the British people. Mary Boardman, 53, from Hereford

    We left at half past eight in five coaches, which is five times more coaches than there has been for any other protest I've been on. I'm part of three generations protesting today - my mother is 86 and on a small demo in Hereford, she's too old to join this march, and my nine-year-old daughter is here with me.

    People feel that bombing Iraq would be a very unjust act and they are worried it might escalate into a full-scale world war with Muslim countries getting involved on Iraq's side. They feel that although we are not in anyway wanting to support Saddam Hussein and his regime that actually his regime got there by being sold arms by the Americans and the British. He wouldn't have got into power had they not supported him because it suited them at the time. We think it's all about oil and resources and America not wanting to compromise its very rich lifestyle.

    I was at Greenham Common - and it's very jolly here, very similar in lots of ways except there weren't men at Greenham, at least not in the numbers you've got here. It tended to be less noisy but just as joyful. Of course we didn't have mobile phone then - it would have been different if we had. We'd have been able to tell each other what was happening around the base.

    Protests across the world: Europe and Africa

    John Hooper in Berlin, Sophie Arie in Rome, Rory Carroll in Johannesburg, and agencies

    Saturday February 15, 2003


    Three members of chancellor Gerhard Schröder's centre-left cabinet defied his express wishes to join an anti-war march through Berlin.

    Fears were expressed that their participation could further inflame the continuing row between Germany and the US over policy on Iraq.

    Church bells throughout Berlin rang out at midday as two vast processions set off from different parts of the city.

    They were due to converge at the 19th century Siegessäule, or victory column, a symbol of the militarism which twice led Germany to disaster in the century that followed. "Old Europe knows about war", said one placard. "1939-45 - all forgotten?", read another.

    The NTV television news station said that around 500 buses had been used to bring protesters into the city from all over Germany. Police said up to 500,000 people attended the rally.

    The cabinet members taking part in the demonstration were Hiedemarie Wieczorek-Zeul, the overseas development minister, from chancellor Schröder's own Social Democratic Party, and Jürgen Trittin and Renate Künast, the environment and agriculture ministers of the Green party.

    The speaker of the lower house, Wolgang Thierse, another leader SPD member, was also among the marchers.

    The general secretary of the opposition Christian Democrats, Laurenz Mayer, said that it was "offensive" for ministers to be taking part in "an anti-American demonstration".

    Mr Mayer added that it would revive memories in the US of last year's general election campaign, during which a then member of the cabinet outraged the White House by comparing President Bush's tactics on Iraq with those of Adolf Hitler.

    A government spokesman said: "In the end, it is for each minister to decide for him or herself whether to respect the chancellor's request." Rome

    Organisers claimed that more than one million marchers, including union leaders, left-wing opposition politicians, intellectuals and anti-vivisection campaigners, converged on the Italian capital to call for peace.

    As people swarmed peacefully, wrapped in flags and chanting peace songs around Rome's ancient monuments, helicopters circled above and almost 2,000 police watched discreetly from the sidelines, with riot gear to the ready.

    The center-right Italian prime minister, Silvio Berlusconi, has declared the country to be a key US ally, despite overwhelming public opposition to a war.

    The march was heavily politicized, as opposition politicians took the opportunity to rally support for the country's fragmented left against Berlusconi.

    RAI, the state television station, chose not to broadcast the event live, arguing that it would put "undue pressure on politicians".

    However, the majority of marchers were ordinary Italians, 85% of whom, according to recent polls, do not support a war to disarm Iraq.

    Crowds opposed to war in Iraq thronged South Africa's major cities on Saturday, as peaceful protests united diverse racial and political groups. Johannesburg

    White housewives, black communists and Muslim students, among others, marched through Johannesburg, Cape Town, Durban and Bloemfontein, chanting slogans and brandishing placards with slogans including "By George, Bush is Just an Empty Warhead", "Blix, Start Searching Israel" and "US, UK, Israel - axis of hypocrisy".

    Trade unions, churches and political parties, including the ruling African National Congress, were represented. Yet, despite South Africa's near-consensus opposition to war, the combined number of marchers was less than 20,000.

    Police reported no violence, and shoppers and tourists mingled with the protesters. A small minority wore Osama bin Laden t-shirts, and one man in Durban, dressed as a suicide bomber, promised to defend Iraq with his life. Kiev

    Braving biting cold and snow flurries in the Ukraine, around 2,000 people rallied in Kiev's central square.

    Anti-globalists led a peaceful Rock Against War protest, joined by communists, socialists, Kurds and pacifists. Natalya Mostenko, 45, was one of several people in Kiev carrying a portrait of Saddam Hussein. "He opposes American dictatorship, and so do I," she said. Mostar

    Around 100 Muslims and Croats united against the prospect of war, the first such cross-community action in seven years.

    Ethnic divisions in the city, 45 miles south-west of Sarajevo, remain tense, despite the 1995 peace agreement which ended the Bosnian war. "We want to say that war is evil, and we who survived one know that better than anyone," said Majda Hadzic, aged 54. Athens

    Several thousand protesters unfurled a giant banner across the wall of the ancient Acropolis, saying "NATO, US and EU equals War", before heading towards the US embassy. Clashes erupted after anarchists wearing hoods and crash helmets broke away from an otherwise peaceful march.

    The great unheard finally speak out

    Mary Riddell reports on the march that changed apathy into action for a cause which could crush a Prime Minister

    Sunday February 16, 2003
    The Observer

    The age of apathy stops here, between a Thomas Cook branch and the Bloomsbury Diner, where the bodies are jammed together too tightly to move. In the minutes before the march begins, anyone will tell you why protest has supplanted politics.

    Some of these twenty-first century Chartists with mobile phones are veterans of the Vietnam demonstrations. Some are too young to remember the Cold War. What unites them is anger against Bush and Blair, but mainly Blair. Everyone I talk to says that he will not have their vote again.

    It is odd to think that these are the sloths who could not be prised from their armchairs when elections rolled round and who hit the remote at the first flicker of any BBC political coverage that wasn't Have I Got News For You.

    These people, in New Labour's analysis, were the inert of the Earth. And here they are, out in their hundreds of thousands, quoting Hans Blix verbatim and defying a Prime Minister who longed to galvanise them and must now regret becoming the Frankenstein of the protesting classes.

    Political leaders hate crowds. Mass meetings have been supplanted by leaks and soundbites. In the fractious build-up to war, lonely societies are encouraged to become more solipsistic. A fearful population, hiding behind its anthrax-proofed windows, is also tractable. There is nothing threatening to government about citizens bickering over the last roll of duct tape in Wal-Mart.

    British marchers have spurned isolation for solidarity, and fear for fury. Their momentum came almost from nowhere. Unlike the Jubilee-trippers, the Soham mobsters and even the Countryside Alliance, they bore no social or political barcode.

    Theirs was, and is, a movement without a leader. Its members belong to no obvious political caste. Labour voters who march are deracinated from their leaders, and the Tories have none worth worrying about.

    Their mission, to halt the war, is by definition negative, and their goal unattainable, bar a miracle. Those hoping to recalibrate the Prime Minister's moral compass face disappointment, or even despair. Few predicted weeks ago that so many people would turn out to stop the unstoppable, and I was certainly not among them.

    The surprise has been the altruism of the protesters, and the size of the vacuum they fill. Blair's natural supporters and opponents have registered their opposition, and seen it spurned. As they get more strident, he digs harder. The hole in democracy grows more cavernous by the day.

    The marchers all felt that; the men in deerstalkers and Barbours, the pro-protesters in neon knitwear, the students and the grandmas whose families had persuaded them to take along brand-new Nokia mobile phones they couldn't work. Who will record their assembly when all of this is over?

    History, perhaps. The War Remnants Museum in Saigon displays yellowed newspaper reports of Western protests against the Vietnam War. Next door, housed in hot sheds, are the napalmed babies and photographs of burnt children. The juxtaposition of press clippings and grim artefacts offers a memento mori. This is what happens when people are right and governments mistaken.

    Today's protesters are starved of inspiration and data. In place of a charismatic leader, they have the belief that politicians are lying. They have no great freedom fighter to support; only Saddam. You could not sell washing powder on that basis, let alone a pacifist cause that may crush a Prime Minister.

    Yet the movement has taken off and its subscribers, on yesterday's evidence, are not a reissued set of hoary peaceniks. These are organised people with clear aims. They want a peaceful solution for Iraq. If that is not forthcoming, Blair will be punished accordingly.

    They may be wrong. He may be right. But in a war predicated on conviction and conscience, the hunches of the nation also count. As Martin Luther King said, countries should repent citizens' evil deeds almost less than 'the appalling silence of the good'.

    The unheard have spoken out.


    Man arrested at Crossgates for wearing peace T-shirt

    Shopper charged after refusing to take off shirt that mall store made for him, bearing slogans "Peace on Earth" and "Give Peace a Chance"

    By CAROL DeMARE, Staff writer  of the Albany Times Union
    First published: Wednesday, March 5, 2003

    GUILDERLAND -- An attorney for the state was arrested and hauled into court after refusing to take off a T-shirt that said "Give Peace a Chance" while shopping at Crossgates Mall.

    Stephen Downs
    Stephen Downs of Selkirk displays the T-shirts he and his son were wearing at Crossgates Mall on Monday.

    This is at least the second time in recent months that mall security asked people wearing T-shirts with peace slogans to leave.

    Steve Downs, 60, of Selkirk, said he was minding his own business Monday when he refused to remove the shirt and was charged with trespass.

    "My point was I'm not trying to convert anybody," Downs said Tuesday. "This was a statement of where I was in my life."

    He had purchased the shirt in a shop in the mall shortly before the arrest. The store put on the lettering while he waited: "Peace on Earth" on the front and "Give Peace a Chance" on the back.

    His son, Roger Downs, 31, of New Baltimore, an ecologist, also bought a shirt. It read "No War With Iraq" and "Let Inspections Work."

    "When they asked me to take it off, I took it off," Roger said. "I think it was ridiculous. I guess the way we see this is we feel the mall has a right to control assembly, not want large protests or large special interest groups or rallies. We were just individuals with T-shirts on, and we were shopping. We weren't talking to people or handing out leaflets."

    Numerous calls to Crossgates Marketing Director Sarah Nieves regarding mall policy were not returned.

    Heidi Siegfried, interim executive director of the Capital Region chapter of the New York Civil Liberties Union, said, "We have the position that the public space in the mall should be a First Amendment protected activity. Even when they have the right to control and prohibit ... someone shouldn't be removed when doing activity consistent with the normal uses of the mall."

    On Dec. 21, about two dozen anti-war protesters wearing pro-peace T-shirts and carrying signs were asked to leave Crossgates. The group complied.

    The incident with the father and son occurred shortly after 7 p.m. in the food court. They said they were asked by two security guards to take off their T-shirts, leave or be arrested.

    "I don't think we have to take off the T-shirts," said Steve Downs, chief attorney in the Albany office of the Commission on Judicial Conduct.

    The guards returned with a Guilderland police officer and, "It was the same routine all over again," the father said. "I said 'OK, arrest me.' "

    The cop talked to him for an hour after he was handcuffed, Downs said, trying to get him to drop the whole thing and take the shirt off.

    "I didn't want to do that," Downs said. "They were just doing their duty. They were trying to be very peaceful. They didn't want any confrontation."

    He was repeatedly told the mall was private property and what he was wearing was unacceptable, the same as if he went to someone's home wearing something unacceptable.

    "I said it's not the same thing, it's not a good analogy," said Steve Downs, who insisted he wasn't protesting or demonstrating by wearing the shirt.

    Guilderland Town Justice Kenneth Riddett released Downs on his own recognizance and set a return date of March 17. Trespass, a violation, carries a maximum of 15 days in jail. A fine or conditional discharge with community service is more commonly given.



    Students protest Bush administration's march toward war with Iraq

    By Associated Press, 3/5/2003 18:19

    AMHERST, Mass. (AP) They walked out of classes and packed student centers or town commons. With signs, angry words and shouts for peace, thousands of college, high school and middle school students around the state rallied to protest the Bush administration's march toward war with Iraq.

    The rallies were part of a ''Books not Bombs'' student strike coordinated by the National Youth and Student Peace Coalition, an organization formed after the Sept. 11, 2001, terrorist attacks.

    Tens of thousands of students at more than 300 colleges and universities nationwide had pledged to join the protests. Thousands of students also rallied for peace in Britain, Sweden, Spain, Australia and other countries.

    At the University of Massachusetts in Amherst, more than 1,000 students from campus and the town's high school and middle school packed into the Student Union Ballroom.

    ''We portray ourselves as heroes fighting off the bad guys,'' said Hilary Wilcox, a 17-year-old Amherst Regional High School junior. ''We close our eyes to the truth of what's going on. This apathy is our greatest enemy because it allows our government free rein.''

    One student in the crowd waved an American flag. Others waved signs reading, ''Drop Bush, not Bombs'' and ''No Blood for Oil.''

    ''There's been a constant sense of protest on the UMass campus,'' said Amy Griffin, a 21-year-old UMass senior. ''You see signs painted around campus and pins on people's bags protesting the war. This is a community that gets involved and cares.''

    Students from Amherst Regional High School and Amherst Regional Middle School marched about a half mile through a cold drizzle from their schools to the UMass rally.

    When they arrived the older crowd gave them a rousing welcome.

    ''On Sept. 11 a lot of innocent people got killed and we were all really upset about that,'' said Javed Basu-Kesselman, a 14-year-old middle school student. ''How are we going to do the same thing to Iraq?''

    The students, most who skipped classes to attend the rally, had organized discussion groups to talk about the impending war and the Bush administration's policies. Similar rallies and forums were held on campuses at Amherst, Smith, Mount Holyoke and Hampshire colleges.

    And they weren't alone. Professors and some community members turned out at the rallies.

    Isaac Ben Ezra, an outspoken senior citizen who often rallies for health issues, took the stage at UMass with signs that read, ''Grandparents for Peace,'' and ''Support our Troops. Bring them Home.''

    ''We have thousands of Americans today who cannot afford drugs or are cutting their pills,'' Ben Ezra said. ''And yet we have a Bush administration that is ready to piss away billions of dollars for war. Not one life for this immoral war. If George Bush doesn't get that message by now, we're going to have to sell it to him.''

    Mika Cade, a member of the Anti-War Coalition at Smith College in Northampton, said about 150 students walked out of class about 1:30 p.m. and held a rally outside the campus library.

    ''It's not like we're just a few hundred people in one part of the nation protesting. This is happening all over the world. Bush has to listen to us and so does the rest of the world.''

    She said there were about 200 people at the rally altogether and they had planned some teach-ins and discussions throughout the day.

    At Mount Holyoke College in South Hadley, about 200 student gathered for an afternoon rally. Throughout the day, some professors tailored their lesson plans to discuss topics of war.

    ''We wanted people to take a stance and engage in talk about war in the classroom,'' said Elizabeth Oshel, 19, a sophomore who is the co-chair of Mount Holyoke's student anti-war group. ''A lot of people on campus have not been talking about war, and we were hoping to bring it to more people's attention.''

    In Boston, Arlington, Newton and Lexington, high school students organized marches to town centers and rallies outside schools.

    ''The war affects kids in a big way,'' said Dan Hurwitz, a 15-year-old Arlington High School student. ''We're seeing a lot of budget cuts in education, and money can be spent on better things than war. And if there's ever a draft, we'd be eligible.

    ''The clock is ticking, and we need our voices heard,'' he said.


    In Memoriam
    Rachel Corrie (1980-2003)
    Artist and Peace Activist
    Student at Evergreen College
    Olympia Washington
    Killed on Sunday, March 16, 2003
    at the age of 23 by an Israeli Army bulldozer while defending the home of  a Palestinian family whose house was targeted for destruction. The Tank driver refused to stop and rolled over her, crushing her and then backed up once again over her body to the horrified shouts of her peace activist colleagues. This photo was taken on April 18, 2002.  Rachel is shown wearing her dove headgear while working on a model of Earth for the eighth annual "Procession of the Species", a community artistic celebration combining art, music and dance to give nature a greater presence on Olympia's city streets. 

    Activist who died for conviction

    Rachel Corrie
    Rachel Corrie: Her father Craig says he is proud of her
    Rachel Corrie, the American killed by an Israeli army bulldozer, was a committed peace activist even before her arrival in the Gaza Strip a few months ago.

    She was a student at Evergreen State College in her local town of Olympia in Washington State, which is known for its liberal sensibilities.

    The 23-year-old arranged peace events there before joining, through local group Olympians for Peace and Solidarity, a Palestinian-led organisation that uses non-violent means to challenge Israeli army tactics in the West Bank and Gaza.

    Her parents have paid tribute to her concern for human rights and dignity, remembering how she was "dedicated to everybody".

    They spoke hours after Ms Corrie died in hospital on Sunday from injuries suffered when she was hit by an armoured Israeli army bulldozer in the southern Gaza Strip.

    Troops attacked

    She was with other activists from the International Solidarity Movement trying to stop the demolition of a Palestinian building in the Rafah refugee camp.

    The Israelis say such tactics are necessary because Palestinian gunmen use the structures as cover to shoot at their troops patrolling in the area.

    For Palestinians... this is not a nightmare but a continuous reality from which international privilege cannot protect them
    Rachel Corrie
    Ms Corrie - who was wearing an orange fluorescent jacket to alert the bulldozer drivers to her presence in pictures taken by her colleagues on Sunday - had previously described the hazards of her work.

    An email despatch details a confrontation on 14 February between another bulldozer and her own group, which she refers to as the "internationals".

    "The internationals stood in the path of the bulldozer and were physically pushed with the shovel backwards, taking shelter in a house.

    "The bulldozer then proceeded on its course, demolishing one side of the house with the internationals inside," she wrote in the email distributed by the International Solidarity Movement.

    Vigil for Rachel Corrie in Olympia
    Ms Corrie was active in the peace movement at home
    Her father Craig Corrie, speaking to the AP news agency from his home in Charlotte, North Carolina, said: "We've tried to bring up our children to have a sense of community, a sense of community that everybody in the world belonged to.

    "Rachel believed that - with her life, now."

    He said that he and his wife were still trying to find out the details of what happened.

    "Rachel was proud, and we are proud of Rachel that she was able to live with her convictions.

    "Rachel was filled with a love and sense of duty to our fellow man, wherever they lived, and she gave her life trying to protect those that could not protect themselves."

    Death vigil

    Ms Corrie's mother Cindy said her daughter had spent nights sleeping at wells to protect them from bulldozers.

    "She lived with families whose houses were threatened with demolition and today as we understand it, she stood for three hours trying to protect a house."

    The grief at her death amongst the community in Olympia was shown on Sunday when several hundred people turned out for a previously scheduled peace vigil that turned into an impromptu memorial.

    Mourners held candles and photocopied pictures of her with the word "Peacemaker", as well as banners urging the United States to stop aid to Israel and avoid war with Iraq.

    The Vice President of Student Affairs at Evergreen State College, Art Costantino says on his online notive of her death that she was a "shining star, a wonderful student and a brave person of deep convictions".

    Larry Mosqueda, one of Ms Corrie's Evergreen professors and a fellow activist said: "She was concerned about human rights and dignity. That's why she was there."


    Statement March 16, 2003

    Craig and Cindy Corrie, parents of Rachel Corrie


    We are now in a period of grieving and still finding out the details behind the death of Rachel in the Gaza Strip.


    We have raised all our children to appreciate the beauty of the global community and family and are proud that Rachel was able to live her convictions.  Rachel was filled with love and a sense of duty to her fellow man, wherever they lived.  And, she gave her life trying to protect those that are unable to protect themselves.


    Rachel wrote to us from the Gaza Strip and we would like to release to the media her experience in her own words at this time.


    Thank you.



    Excerpts from an e-mail from Rachel Corrie to her family on February 7, 2003.


    I have been in Palestine for two weeks and one hour now, and I still have very few words to describe what I see.  It is most difficult for me to think about what's going on here when I sit down to write back to the United States--something about the virtual portal into luxury.  I don't know if many of the children here have ever existed without tank-shell holes in their walls and the towers of an occupying army surveying them constantly from the near horizons.  I think, although I'm not entirely sure, that even the smallest of these children understand that life is not like this everywhere.  An eight-year-old was shot and killed by an Israeli tank two days before I got here, and many of the children murmur his name to me, Ali--or point at the posters of him on the walls.  The children also love to get me to practice my limited Arabic by asking me "Kaif Sharon?"  "Kaif Bush?" and they laugh when I say "Bush Majnoon" "Sharon Majnoon" back in my limited Arabic.  (How is Sharon?  How is Bush? Bush is crazy.  Sharon is crazy.)  Of course this isn't quite what I believe, and some of the adults who have the English correct me: Bush mish Majnoon... Bush is a businessman.  Today I tried to learn to say "Bush is a tool", but I don't think it translated quite right.  But anyway, there are eight-year-olds here much more aware of the workings of the global power structure than I was just a few years ago--at least regarding Israel.


    Nevertheless, I think about the fact that no amount of reading, attendance at conferences, documentary viewing and word of mouth could have prepared me for the reality of the situation here.  You just can't imagine it unless you see it, and even then you are always well aware that your experience is not at all the reality: what with the difficulties the Israeli Army would face if they shot an unarmed US citizen, and with the fact that I have money to buy water when the army destroys wells, and, of course, the fact that I have the option of leaving.  Nobody in my family has been shot, driving in their car, by a rocket launcher from a tower at the end of a major street in my hometown.  I have a home.  I am allowed to go see the ocean.  Ostensibly it is still quite difficult for me to be held for months or years on end without a trial (this because I am a white US citizen, as opposed to so many others).  When I leave for school or work I can be relatively certain that there will not be a heavily armed soldier waiting half way between Mud Bay and downtown Olympia at a checkpointa soldier with the power to decide whether I can go about my business, and whether I can get home again when I'm done.  So, if I feel outrage at arriving and entering briefly and incompletely into the world in which these children exist, I wonder conversely about how it would be for them to arrive in my world.  


    They know that children in the United States don't usually have their parents shot and they know they sometimes get to see the ocean.  But once you have seen the ocean and lived in a silent place, where water is taken for granted and not stolen in the night by bulldozers, and once you have spent an evening when you havent wondered if the walls of your home might suddenly fall inward waking you from your sleep, and once youve met people who have never lost anyone-- once you have experienced the reality of a world that isn't surrounded by murderous towers, tanks, armed "settlements" and now a giant metal wall, I wonder if you can forgive the world for all the years of your childhood spent existing--just existing--in resistance to the constant stranglehold of the worlds fourth largest military--backed by the worlds only superpower--in its attempt to erase you from your home.  That is something I wonder about these children.  I wonder what would happen if they really knew.


    As an afterthought to all this rambling, I am in Rafah, a city of about 140,000 people, approximately 60 percent of whom are refugees--many of whom are twice or three times refugees.  Rafah existed prior to 1948, but most of the people here are themselves or are descendants of people who were relocated here from their homes in historic Palestine--now Israel.  Rafah was split in half when the Sinai returned to Egypt.  Currently, the Israeli army is building a fourteen-meter-high wall between Rafah in Palestine and the border, carving a no-mans land from the houses along the border.  Six hundred and two homes have been completely bulldozed according to the Rafah Popular Refugee Committee.  The number of homes that have been partially destroyed is greater.


    Today as I walked on top of the rubble where homes once stood, Egyptian soldiers called to me from the other side of the border, "Go! Go!" because a tank was coming.  Followed by waving and "what's your name?".  There is something disturbing about this friendly curiosity.  It reminded me of how much, to some degree, we are all kids curious about other kids: Egyptian kids shouting at strange women wandering into the path of tanks.  Palestinian kids shot from the tanks when they peak out from behind walls to see what's going on.  International kids standing in front of tanks with banners.  Israeli kids in the tanks anonymously, occasionally shouting-- and also occasionally waving--many forced to be here, many just aggressive, shooting into the houses as we wander away.


    In addition to the constant presence of tanks along the border and in the western region between Rafah and settlements along the coast, there are more IDF towers here than I can count--along the horizon,at the end of streets.  Some just army green metal.  Others these strange spiral staircases draped in some kind of netting to make the activity within anonymous.  Some hidden,just beneath the horizon of buildings.  A new one went up the other day in the time it took us to do laundry and to cross town twice to hang banners.  Despite the fact that some of the areas nearest the border are the original Rafah with families who have lived on this land for at least a century, only the 1948 camps in the center of the city are Palestinian controlled areas under Oslo.  But as far as I can tell, there are few if any places that are not within the sights of some tower or another.  Certainly there is no place invulnerable to apache helicopters or to the cameras of invisible drones we hear buzzing over the city for hours at a time.


    I've been having trouble accessing news about the outside world here, but I hear an escalation of war on Iraq is inevitable.  There is a great deal of concern here about the "reoccupation of Gaza."  Gaza is reoccupied every day to various extents, but I think the fear is that the tanks will enter all the streets and remain here, instead of entering some of the streets and then withdrawing after some hours or days to observe and shoot from the edges of the communities.  If people aren't already thinking about the consequences of this war for the people of the entire region then I hope they will start.  


    I also hope you'll come here.  We've been wavering between five and six internationals.  The neighborhoods that have asked us for some form of presence are Yibna, Tel El Sultan, Hi Salam, Brazil, Block J, Zorob, and Block O.  There is also need for constant night-time presence at a well on the outskirts of Rafah  since the Israeli army destroyed the two largest wells.  According to the municipal water office the wells destroyed last week provided half of Rafahs water supply. Many of the communities have requested internationals to be present at night to attempt to shield houses from further demolition.  After about ten p.m. it is very difficult to move at night because the Israeli army treats anyone in the streets as resistance and shoots at them.  So clearly we are too few.


    I continue to believe that my home, Olympia, could gain a lot and offer a lot by deciding to make a commitment to Rafah in the form of a sister-community relationship.  Some teachers and children's groups have expressed interest in e-mail exchanges, but this is only the tip of the iceberg of solidarity work that might be done.  Many people want their voices to be heard, and I think we need to use some of our privilege as internationals to get those voices heard directly in the US, rather than through the filter of well-meaning internationals such as myself.  I am just beginning to learn, from what I expect to be a very intense tutelage, about the ability of people to organize against all odds, and to resist against all odds.  


    Thanks for the news I've been getting from friends in the US.  I just read a report back from a friend who organized a peace group in Shelton, Washington, and was able to be part of a delegation to the large January 18th protest in Washington DC.  People here watch the media, and they told me again today that there have been large protests in the United States and "problems for the government" in the UK.  So thanks for allowing me to not feel like a complete polyanna when I tentatively tell people here that many people in the United States do not support the policies of our government, and that we are learning from global examples how to resist.

    Rachel Corrie, ISM Peace Activist,
     Confronting the Israeli Bulldozer
    in the Gaza Strip community
    before being killed March 16, 2003




    Israeli Army Enters Gaza Camp


    At least four Palestinians are reported killed and 12 injured after Israeli troops entered a refugee camp in Central Gaza. The Israelis sent about 30 tanks and armoured vehicles into the Nusseirat camp early on Monday, exchanging gunfire with Palestinian fighters.

    One of the dead was a 13-year-old boy, another was 17, Palestinian hospital sources said.

    On Sunday, an American peace activist was killed after she was run over by an Israeli bulldozer in the southern Gaza Strip.

    An Israeli military spokesman said that her death was an accident. The US government has asked Israel for a full investigation.


    Combat zone

    Palestinian sources said Israeli troops had thrust into the centre of Nusseirat and surrounded a house.

    The camp is a stronghold of the Islamic militant group, Hamas, which has carried out scores of deadly attacks against Israelis. The raid is the latest of almost nightly assaults by Israel against militants in Gaza over teh past few weeks.




    Witnesses said Rachel Corrie, aged 23, from Olympia, Washington, had been trying to stop the demolition of a Palestinian building in the Rafah refugee camp.

    There were eight international protestors at the  site - four American and four British - all members of a group called International Solidarity Movement.

    Ms Corrie was the first member of the organisation to be killed in the conflict in the Palestinian territories.

    The Israeli army accused the group of acting irresponsibly by intentionally placing themselves in a combat zone.

    Israeli forces use tanks and bulldozers to destroy buildings near the Gaza-Egypt border, which they say are used as cover by Palestinian gunmen to shoot at Israeli troops patrolling the area.

    Groups of international protestors have gathered in several locations in the West Bank and Gaza over the last two years, trying to protect families whose homes are due to be demolished by Israeli forces.

    West Bank closed

     The death occurred as the Israeli army reinforced its closure of the West Bank and Gaza Strip amid fears of attacks during a forthcoming Jewish holiday. Palestinians will be prevented from entering Israel during the festival of Purim, which runs from Monday to Wednesday, a military statement said.

    Israeli radio said the order came from Prime Minister Ariel Sharon and Defence Minister Shaul Mofaz. It added that intelligence sources had warned of attacks being planned.  Palestinian sources said that mroe than 10,000 workers from Gaza had been prevented from  going to work in Israel on Sunday morning.planned.


    U.S. Woman Slain by Bulldozer in Israel had been active in peace movement for years

    By Paul Queary, Associated Press, 3/16/2003 16:16

    OLYMPIA, Wash. (AP) In a matter of months, Rachel Corrie went from the orderly peace movement of this small liberal city to a deadly world of gunfire, violent political conflict and the bulldozer that crushed her to death.

    Corrie, 23, a student at The Evergreen State College in Olympia, died Sunday in Gaza while trying to stop the bulldozer from tearing down a Palestinian physician's home. She fell in front of the machine, which ran over her and then backed up, witnesses said.

    In an e-mail earlier this month, Corrie had described a Feb. 14 confrontation with another Israeli bulldozer in which she referred to herself and other activists as ''internationals.''

    ''The internationals stood in the path of the bulldozer and were physically pushed with the shovel backwards, taking shelter in a house,'' Corrie wrote in the e-mail, distributed in a March 3 news release by the International Solidarity Movement.

    ''The bulldozer then proceeded on its course, demolishing one side of the house with the internationals inside,'' she wrote.

    Just a few months before her death, Corrie had been organizing events as an activist in Olympia's peace movement and at Evergreen, a small campus know for its devotion to liberal causes.

    Through a local group called Olympians for Peace in the Middle East, she joined the International Solidarity Movement, a Palestinian-led group that uses nonviolent methods to challenge Israeli occupation. Among their methods is standing in front of the bulldozers Israel sends into the area nearly ever day to destroy buildings near the Gaza-Egypt border.

    Other protesters who were with Corrie in Gaza on Sunday said she was wearing a bright colored jacket when the bulldozer hit her.

    ''Rachel was alone in front of the house as we were trying to get them to stop,'' said Greg Schnabel, 28, of Chicago. ''She waved for the bulldozer to stop and waved. She fell down and the bulldozer kept going. We yelled, 'Stop, stop,' and the bulldozer didn't stop at all.''

    Israeli military spokesman Capt. Jacob Dallal said her death was an accident. The U.S. State Department had no immediate comment.

    A tearful Craig Corrie, Rachel's father, remembered his daughter Sunday as ''dedicated to everybody.''

    ''We've tried to bring up our children to have a sense of community, a sense of community that everybody in the world belonged to,'' he said from his home in Charlotte, N.C. ''Rachel believed that with her life, now.''

    Corrie was already a committed peace activist when she arrived at Evergreen State, a small campus is known for devotion to liberal causes, said Larry Mosqueda, one of Corrie's professors and a fellow activist.

    ''She was concerned about human rights and dignity,'' he said. ''That's why she was there.''

    The move from organizer to front-line opposition in a war zone was a switch for Corrie, whom friends said was not usually inclined to the overt acts of civil disobedience that characterized such events as the World Trade Organization protests in Seattle in 1999.

    ''As long as I've known her she's always been very energetic and very focused about social justice,'' said Phan Nguyen, 28, a friend and fellow activist who has made several similar trips to the West Bank. ''It seemed natural that she would do something like this.''

    In her e-mailed dispatch from Rafah, Corrie painted a picture of the perilous life of a human shield, recounting a Feb. 14 confrontation with the Israelis.

    ''We can only imagine what it is like for Palestinians living here, most of them already once-or-twice refugees already, for whom this is not a nightmare,'' Corrie wrote, ''but a continuous reality from which international privilege cannot protect them, and from which they have no economic means to escape.''

    On the Net:

    International Solidarity Movement:

    Olympia Movement for Justice and Peace:

    Evergreen State College:


    Women From Washington State Shine for ISM
    Monday, 3 March 2003, 9:56 am
    Press Release: International Solidarity Movement

    Women From Washington State Shine for ISM

    Today's update focuses on two remarkable women from the US state of Washington. Rachel Corrie from Olympia writes an update on the Gaza Strip's hottest hot spot, while Susan Barclay writes a note of thanks to her supporters (yet still we wonder, is there a conspiracy of silence in the American press?).

    Items 1-4 are from Rachel, and item 5 is given over to Susan.

    Updates on the major projects ISM Activists in Rafah, Gaza Strip have been pursuing

    1. Human shield work with the Rafah Municipal Water Authority (Leading to ISM activists coming under fire).

    2. Direct action work aimed at stopping or hindering the destruction of houses by Israeli occupation force bulldozers along the border strip in Rafah. 3. Demonstrations in conjunction with community groups and individuals living in Rafah.

    4. Investigation into human rights violations at the Mowasi-Tufah checkpoint, and in the case of men killed in tunnels near Salah El Dinn gate in Rafah, and in the case of the invasion of the agricultural El Hash-Ash area of Rafah on Sunday the 23rd.

    These updates are followed by a brief calendar of events recorded since the tenth of February. Sorry, everybody, for the stress on your inboxes.

    1. Human shield work continues with Rafah Municipal Water workers

    February 25, 2003

    Internationals in Rafah have been continuing support work with workers from the Rafah Municipal Water Authority since Sunday 16th February, following a break due to the Eid holiday. ISM-Rafah continues to send internationals to sleep at a third well in the immediate vicinity in order to protect it from destruction. The workers are currently building a barrier surrounding the "Canada Well (#P-144), in the Canada-Tel El Sultan area of Rafah. This well, along with the El Iskan Well (#P-152) was destroyed by Israeli military bulldozers on 30th January. On several occasions, the internationals have witnessed shooting from military vehicles on the settler road which passes along the northwestern edge of the sand-dunes and agricultural areas on the outskirts of Rafah. Bullets have not hit the ground or objects in the immediate vicinity of the workers or internationals, a change from previous human shield actions with the water workers.

    According to the Rafah Municipal Water Authority, the Canada Well had a capacity of 180 cubic metres of water per hour35% of Rafah's total water supply. The two wells destroyed were the largest of six in Rafah, providing about 60% of Rafah's total municipal water supply.

    The Municipal Water office has made attempts to compensate somewhat for the emergency, by connecting the municipal wells with a private agricultural well which is owned by local farmers. The municipality also redistributed the remaining water according to districts, implementing a strict program in which each district has access to water for six hours a day.

    The Canada Well cost US $250,000 at the time of its construction in 1990. Its construction was funded by the Rafah municipality. The El Iskan well was implemented by the Canadian International Development Agencyat a cost of US $205,000 in 1999. The municipality reports receiving $40,000 from the World Bank through the Local Affairs Ministry to repair the two wells. All of this money was used in the construction of fences and protective structures surrounding the well site. The municipality estimates that $300,000 will be needed to repair the Canada well, and $100,000 is needed to repair the El Iskan well. The municipality is waiting for money promised by the Japanese, Canadian, and Norwegian governments in order to restore the wells to capacity.

    ISMers come under fire on two separate occasions

    1st March

    Today at approximately 10.30am, three internationals joined four men working for the Rafah Municipal Water Authority at the El Iskan Water Well (#P-152) on the outskirts of the Tel El Sultan, Rafah. This well is one of the two largest municipal water wells in Rafah, both of which were destroyed by occupation tanks and bulldozers on 30th January this year. This well is being repaired with funding from Norway and Canada. At full capacity, it provides twenty-five per cent of Rafah's water supply.

    Workers at the well reported being fired upon on Thursday 27th February.

    Saturday, a Municipal Water Authority spokesman reported speaking directly with the Israeli District Command Office. He declared that he had co-ordinated with occupation forces in the area in order to ensure the safety of the Palestinian workers.

    Despite receiving this permission, and in spite of the presence of banners and megaphones, the activists and workers were fired upon several times over a period of about one hour. One of the bullets came within two metres of three internationals and a municipal water worker, close enough to spray bits of debris in their faces as it landed at their feet.

    This well is located within sight of the Rafah-Mowasi checkpoint, settlement buildings and greenhouses, bunkers in the militarized zone surrounding the checkpoint, a low sniper tower to the south and a very tall sniper tower in the distance to the north. The activists were unable to locate the precise origin of the shots amongst the various occupation force buildings.

    2. Internationals continue to take direct action aimed at hindering the demolition of civilian homes by Occupation Forces

    Rafah continues to witness the destruction of homes and agriculture on a daily basis. The activists confront barriers to direct action work in most of these cases. These barriers manifest themselves in several ways.

    First, limited numbers of internationals are attempting to respond to demolition which occurs without warning allover the edges of Rafah, a city of about 140,000 people. The most recent house demolitions witnessed were accompanied by the amassment of 20 tanks nearby in the border strip. There are currently seven international ISM activists working in Rafah.

    Secondly, with a few exceptions, house demolitions in Rafah are carried out by bulldozers and tankswhich fire into the houses or begin to demolish them as notification to the inhabitants of their arrival. Many of the homes destroyed are empty, because the inhabitants have fled with their belongings after experiencing gunfire through windows and walls and the partial bulldozing of their houses. The homes here are not targeted because of any connection with suicide bombings, but because of their existence along an area which the Israeli army finds strategically useful. Thus there is little predictability about which homes will be destroyed next, and no opportunity for direct contact with the army in order to negotiate or notify them of the presence of internationals in the homes.

    Much of the destruction occurs at night. Many of the streets of Rafah are impassable in the dark due to sniper towers positioned along the perimeters of Rafah. In the dark, internationals attempting to carry out non-violent direct action rely on battery-charged lights, banners, and the accuracy of unknown local collaborators to make the Israeli military aware of their location.

    Another factor in attempting to stop the destruction of a home is a variable factor: the question of whether the driver of a particular tank cares about injuring internationals in the process of destroying the welfare of the Palestinians living here.

    On the afternoon of Friday 14th February, seven internationals responded to reports of house demolitions in the block O area, with support from Palestinian organizers. They encountered two bulldozers and a tank, which fired shots around the internationals that seemed directed at Palestinians in nearby alleys. The internationals stood in the path of the bulldozer and were physically pushed with the shovel backwards, taking shelter in a house. The bulldozer then proceeded on its course, demolishing one side of the house with the internationals inside. The driver then dropped a sound grenade out of the cab of the bulldozer, and continued to demolish the house, at which point the activists were able to escape, amid gunfire from the tank.

    The next day activists responded to reports of house-demolition in the same area and approached a bulldozer while identifying themselves by megaphone and banners. They were unable to position themselves between the bulldozer and nearby structures, and were beckoned away from the frontline by Palestinians in the area.

    On the 11th and 12th and from the 21st till 23rd, internationals arrived on the scene of demolitions (homes, greenhouses and a mosque) too late to respond. This is in addition to house demolitions which the internationals discovered several days after the event.

    On the afternoon of 23rd February, six internationals achieved some success in interrupting the work of a bulldozer and a tank demolishing houses in the vicinity of Salah El Dinn gate.

    The internationals arrived in the "Sha'ar" area near Salah El Dinn gate in the late afternoon, and found the bulldozer completing the demolition of a house and chicken-coop near the border strip. Palestinians in the area requested the internationals to do whatever they could to try to stop further destruction. The group approached the bulldozer and tank from the side, carrying banners and announcing their presence by megaphone. Although the tank moved into their path, the internationals were able to manoeuvre into the path of the bulldozer, at which point it moved to a nearby house and began to demolish a garden wall.

    The tank again moved between the internationals and the bulldozer. The group split briefly while one member of the group moved onto the porch of the house from the back. The remaining internationals stood within several metres of the tank, which began to fire machine guns near them, close enough that one international was pelted with small brick fragments when bullets hit the wall next to her. The international on the porch led the way for the others to climb over the wall and into the house. They then proceeded to the roof. The bulldozer moved back to its previous work destroying a chicken coop and hitting the edges of other small civilian structures.

    Two internationals remained on the roof, while the remaining four proceeded back toward the bulldozer. The tank again fired a stream of bullets in their path, but desisted as the internationals continued to walk forward, reminding the tank by megaphone of the clear absence of any threat to the vehicles, of international law, and of the right of human beings to housing and livelihoods.

    As the internationals positioned themselves in the bulldozer's path, the tank and the bulldozer turned eastward and withdrew behind walls into the border strip some distance away. The four internationals followed the tank and bulldozer to the edge of the border strip, fearful for the homes of friends in the direction the vehicles headed.

    The internationals returned to the partially demolished house and helped the family living there carry their belongingsbedding, furniture, family portraits, dishes, vases, all the elements of a family homeinto a house nearby. Four internationals remained overnight with the family in the house where the furniture was relocated.

    The activists involved felt they had some success in this action, as they were at least able to delay the work of the bulldozers in demolishing houses.

    On 24th February at approximately 9 pm, on their way back to the Sha'ar area for another night, ISM activists received notification that the bulldozers had returned. Despite sprinting to the location, the internationals arrived in time only to see the last of this family's house completely churned into the earth, as the mother of the family wept, looking on.

    Internationals continue homestays in the Sha'ar area.

    Immediately adjacent to the Israeli military's Salah Eh Dinn sniper tower, from which two teenage boys were shot and injured today while playing in the street. The families in the area believe that they may be the target of house demolitions very soon, as collective punishment for their proximity to tunnels which run from Rafah into Egypt.

    All of the homes which the internationals sleep in have bullet or shell holes in the walls. From the kitchen window of one apartment where a woman prepared tea for the group, the most immediate object in view is the eastern window of the sniper tower, about 100 metres away. The internationals observed several holes in the kitchen wallapparently from shots fired into the kitchen window. The internationals have attached banners and stood on the roofs of some of the buildings with megaphones in order to make their continuing presence known to Israeli occupation forces in the sniper tower, as there is a recent history of houses demolished in Rafah by rockets fired from towers at a distance.

    Sleeping in houses such as these on the front line, with the constant sound of machinery moving outside in the border strip and frequent gunfire from tanks, internationals report seeing small children get out of bed in the night in terror to come sit close to their parents, and report experiencing nightmares of their own homes being demolished. Internationals here, who can walk in front of tanks on Palestinian land without being killed, feel some degree of impotence in the face of this massive destruction of civilian homes. We can only imagine what it is like for Palestinians living here, most of them already once-or-twice refugees already, for whom this is not a nightmare, but a continuous reality from which international privilege cannot protect them, and from which they have no economic means to escape.

    The Palestinians and internationals in ISM-Rafah are still discussing strategy about how to use their members most effectively.

    3. Demonstrations in conjunction with community groups and individuals living in Rafah:

    In the last two weeks internationals and Palestinians in ISM Rafah have participated in two spirited demonstrations in solidarity with the people of Iraq, and against United States and British policy in Iraq and Palestine. The first demonstration took place on 15th February, in conjunction with demonstrations around the world, and was attended by about 150 people. Reports on this demonstration have already been released widely.

    The second demonstration occurred on February 23rd, and was attended by thousands. ISM was invited to participate in the planning of this demonstration by the Rafah National Committee for Development and Services, but planning for the event was a coalition effort on the part of many community groups and individuals. These include the Fateh Youth Parliament, the Rafah Popular Refugee Committee, the Rafah Children's Parliament, the General Union of Palestinian Women, numerous Rafah area school groups and many others.

    ISMers drafted a joint letter in conjunction with the Youth Parliament addressing the inalienable rights of all children, and the denial of these rights to children in Iraq and Palestine. They also called upon the international community to apply equal standards to all states regarding to compliance with UN resolutions. Copies of this letter were distributed in Arabic and English at the demonstration, and are available from:

    The demonstration began at 11 and lasted about an hour. Children and representatives from community groups gave speeches in Arabic. Masses marched carrying signs and banners that said "Peace for children in Palestine and Iraq" and "The real terrorists are in the United States and Israel", among many other statements against war on Iraq, and in support of the Iraqi people. The internationals recognized symbols and banners from numerous school and community-groups, Fateh, DFLP, FIDA, PFLP, Hamas and many individual demonstrators among those marching.

    One international delivered a speech in English, translated into Arabic by one of the Palestinian coordinators of ISM-Rafah. This speech decried the behaviour of the United States' and British governments, recognized the linkage between war on Iraq and increased destruction of Palestinian lives, and also recognized the mass mobilization of people around the world on behalf of peace, justice, and human rights. The international thanked the Palestinian people for offering a continuous example to the rest of the world of resistance against all odds.

    As this speech was delivered, a British national burned a large British flag, and a US national burned a large US flag. Both activists then burned numerous images of US president George W. Bush. The woman who deliverd the speech burned a picture of the houses of Parliament in London. As the speech concluded they began to chant, with the crowd immediately surrounding them, "Hurriyah la Falasteen" Freedom for Palestinerepeatedly.

    Other groups burned a giant papier-maché model of an F-16 bomber, an effigy of Ariel Sharon, as well as giant Israeli, US, and British flags.

    4. Investigation and Documentation of Human Rights Violations


    >From 11th to 13th of February, internationals working with ISM made initial investigative visits to the Mowasi-Tufah checkpoint, located between Khan Younis and the closed village of Mowasi. On their first visit, at approximately 1:15 on

    February 11th, internationals found a group of Palestinians waiting at a road block within site of the checkpoint. Some of these people reported that they had been waiting there since 7 am. Many of the Palestinians there were fearful of talking to internationals, due to the threat of reprisals from occupation forces. They reported that the Israeli occupation forces stationed at the checkpoint told them that the checkpoint would open at 2 pm. This visit occurred on the most significant day of Eid, a major Muslim holiday during which most Palestinians in Rafah spend extensive time visiting their families.

    At 2:40 pm a voice over a megaphone spoke from amongst the structures surrounding the checkpoint. And a small group of five men proceeded forward to a yellow sign approximately half way between the roadblock and the checkpoint. After a period of 5-10 minutes a voice from the megaphone ushered these men forward through a corridor of cement blocks. The internationals could clearly see machine guns pointed in the direction of the roadblock from bunkers adjacent to the checkpoint.

    A slow stream of women and men, apparently in their 40's and 50's, accompanied sometimes by small children, came out from behind the checkpoint through a similar corridor that runs between the checkpoint and a massive concrete wall to the south. The Palestinians at the checkpoint reported that only children under ten, women over 35 and men over 40 are allowed to enter or leave Mowasi. One young woman reported that she lives in Mowasi, but has been unable to return there for three months. She was among those waiting at the checkpoint since 7 am.

    The internationals observed that groups of five peoplealternately women and menwere allowed through the checkpoint at intervals of 10-25 minutes. They witnessed one group of women turned back entirely after a man came out from the roadblock to speak to them, which precipitated some shouting over the megaphones.

    On subsequent visits to the Mowasi Tufah checkpoint internationals reported attempting to enter Mowasi, and being denied entry by the Israeli soldiers stationed there. They described the security inside of the checkpoint as equivalent with that of an international airport.

    23rd February Israeli occupation force invasion of El Hash-Ash Area

    On the afternoon of 23rd February ISM activists in Rafah received reports of a siege in the El Hash-Ash agricultural community on the North-Western side of Rafah. Internationals were unable to respond immediately to this report, due to immersion in direct action against house demolitions described above. Reports received at the time reported seeing Israeli soldiers on foot in El Hash-Ash, with the entire area under the control of the occupation forces, and gunfire and demolitions in progress. At approximately 7.30pm, the group received notification that the occupation forces had withdrawn from the area.

    On 24th February, three internationals went to the El Hash-Ash area in order to document the destruction there and interview people who had been present the previous night. The area they entered appeared largely agricultural, with small one-and two-storey dwellings interspersed among the remains of greenhouses.

    As they approached the area, they saw large shredded sheets of clear plastic flapping from the mangled metal skeletons of dozens of greenhouses, leaving the vegetables inside completely exposed. In most cases, the metal frames of the greenhouses were bent beyond recognition and lying on the ground, crushing the beans, tomatoes, peas, and cucumbers which had been growing inside. In other cases, the plants had been torn off their training strings and crushed on the ground. A small, one-story concrete-brick house with a corrugated metal roof was also partially demolished.

    A man living in the area reported that he was ordered from his house by soldiers in tanks, along with approximately 150 other males over the age of 14 who live in the area. The men were herded, by means of machine guns firing around them, out of the El Hash-Ash area and under a sniper tower at the edge of the nearby Gush Katif settlement. They were held there for more than three and a half hours until about 7.30 pm. Several of the men were beaten, including six who were hospitalized.

    While the men were held, 25 large greenhouses were destroyed by tanks and bulldozers. Residents in the area report that these greenhouses supply the sole livelihood for 300 people.

    Residents had no idea why this attack had taken place.

    One man said, "Maybe they want to expand the settlement." Others stated that there has never been any resistance activity in this area. "This was our living."

    Events Surrounding the Deaths of 2 Men in Tunnels beneath the Block O area

    On 14th February, Rafah activists received word that two men were trapped or possibly killed in tunnels beneath the Block O area on the night of 13th February. After witnessing the continued presence of a large machine drilling holes into the ground on the border strip, witnesses also observed ground-shaking underground explosions. Activists concluded that the tunnels had collapsed due to Israeli occupation force anti-tunnel activity.

    On 14th February, the activists received an indirect request from the men's families to act as human shields in order for the bodies to be brought from underground safely. These requests were retracted when it was reported that the Palestinian Authority had negotiated with the Israeli army to allow the family to recover the bodies themselves. That night family members reported that five men entered the tunnels in an unsuccessful attempt to recover the bodies, and that one of these men was arrested by the Israeli occupation forces.

    16th February, a team of ten men entered the tunnels from holes created at the surfaceby the Israeli military, and were successful in recovering the bodies. They were subsequently all arrested and transported with the bodies by tank to the Israeli-controlled side of the Rafah-Egypt border checkpoint, according to their testimony to ISM activists on 18th February.

    The men involved in the recovery of the bodies report that they were slapped and interrogated by IOF officers during their detention, and forced to sit overnight outside the buildings at the border checkpoint, in a circle surrounding the bodies, which they said was difficult, due to the fact that the bodies were in a state of decay. They report finding fragments of a tear-gas canister in the tunnel near the bodies, which they carried out of the tunnel, and which they report were confiscated by the soldiers who detained them. They report that when they found the bodies their skin was discoloured and bubbled, and that their chests were distended. The detainees were released on 17th February, as were the bodies of the two men killed, Zeyad Al Sha'ar and Mohammed Hamed Kishta. Activists in Rafah continue to seek more information about the cause of death of these two men.

    Brief Calendar of Events

    Tuesday 11th February

    Underground explosions in Yibna and Rafah due to Israeli Army anti-tunnel bombs.

    Group monitored, photographed, and demonstrated presence with banners. Tufah visits. Internationals witness aftermath of house demolition in Block J and another large explosion in block J-Yibna area. Abu Holi check point reported closed after army killed a man there. Principle day of Eid festival.

    Wednesday 12th February

    Continued underground explosions. Abu Holi closed several hours. Unsuccessful attempt to enter Mowasi-Tufah. 2 houses demolished in Block-J Eshroot area at 6 pm. Four tanks, two bulldozers and back-hoe returned between 9 and 10 pm. No further demolitions reported. Eid festival continues.

    Friday 14th February

    Reports received of two men trapped or killed in tunnels. Internationals respond to house demolition in Block O. Bulldozer partially demolishes house with internationals inside.

    Saturday 15th February

    International day of protest. ISMers participate in protest in Rafah. Tank blown up in Northern Gaza strip by resistance forces. Five person team enters tunnel in unsuccessful attempt to recover bodies. One arrested according to reports from family.

    Sunday 16th February

    ISM resumes human shield work in Canada/Tel El Sultan, Rafah after break for Eid holiday. Ten men arrested and corpses confiscated after recovery from tunnels.

    Monday 17th February

    Palestinian ISM activist witnesses assassination by military plain-clothes commandos and two tanks on road between Abu Holi and Gaza. Man killed is later confirmed by international media to be Riyad Abu Zeid, a Hamas leader. Unconfirmed numbers injured. ISMers see smoke rising from settlement/Mowasi area for much of the morningunable to identify source.

    Wednesday 19th February

    11 reported killed in Gaza during night of 18th February. During day, four "Qassam" rockets reported by international media to be fired from North Gaza strip toward Sderot. Hamas claims responsibility. Water work continues.

    Thursday 20th February

    Checkpoints closed all day.

    Friday 21st February

    One man reported killed by army at Erez checkpoint, another killed at settlement in Northern Gaza strip. Medicines Sans Frontiers group report being fired upon while trying to cross Abu Holi checkpoint, despite prior permission from military. Mosque destroyed in Block J was abandoned previously due to earlier attacks.

    Saturday 22nd February

    Water work continues. Internationals, responding to reports of house demolition in Block J, witness further underground bombing. Reports are received that one house was demolished prior to their arrival. Heavy shooting in Block J during the night. Reports later confirmed by various sources that Israeli soldiers on foot entered at least one house in Hi Salaam area during the night.

    Sunday 23rd February

    Large scale demonstration in solidarity with the people of Iraq. El Hash-Ash area invaded and occupied. 150-200 men held under gunfire containment for 3-4 hours. 25 greenhouses destroyed. Internationals intervene in house demolition near Salah El Dinn gate. Eight deaths reported in Beit Hanounincluding possible deaths by stabbing. Five houses reported demolished in Tufah area. Internationals unable to return to Rafah due to closure of checkpoint.

    Monday 24th February

    All checkpoints in Gaza strip reported closed during morning. Water work continues. Abu holi checkpoint alternately open and closed during day. House protected Sunday is destroyed during the night of 24th February.

    For information on the above reports please contact Rachel at 067-857049

    Or e-mail

    5. Thank you message from Susan Barclay

    To each and every one....

    I just wanted to write a very quick note to let people know that I am indeed free, and beyond happy. I just wanted to say an immediate, incredibly sincere THANK YOU to all the people who worked so very hard to support me. I can not tell you how much it means. I have been very busy and will be meeting with my lawyer tomorrow to discuss various legal possibilities and then I hope to find the time to write an account of exactly what happened. THANK YOU AGAIN.

    Salaam, Susan

    At the time of writing, Susan's story still has been conspicuous by its absence in the American press, although other media concerns in the US have taken up her story. The British press has not overlooked her case, as you can see if you check out the following:,2763,905348,00.html

    Please e-mail any American newspapers that you know of, and ask them why this story is not of any interest to them? Do they wish to be complicit in human rights abuses of their own citizens? At the very least, the story should have appeared in the Washington state press, some of the e-mail addresses of which are:

    Seattle Post-Intelligencer

    Seattle Times

    The Olympian

    Make your message short with the subject 'Susan Barclay is free.'

    Obviously, don't mention ISM or any media co-ordinator's name.

    David Watson Media Co-ordinator Beit Sahour Occupied Palestine Phone: +972-2-2774602 Cell: +972-67-862 439 web:



    This war was not worth a child's finger

    Victory in just three weeks, relatively few western casualties and now, at last, even dancing on the streets. So, asks Julian Barnes, did those of us who opposed the Iraq conflict get it wrong?

    Friday April 11, 2003
    The Guardian

    So, peacenik, you lost. We told you so. Sure, it wasn't exactly the pushover we'd war-gamed. The Iraqis didn't rise in rebellion as we promised, the flower-throwing was a little tardy, but that was just because we'd underestimated how terrorised they were. Still, a three-week campaign with a couple of hundred coalition dead; the end approaches, and the Iraqis are dancing on fallen statues. Soon your fellow peaceniks can start trucking in the relief and nation-building can begin. May I hear a squeak of rejoicing?

    So, warnik, you think you've won? Please consider this. On Monday afternoon your guys thought they had found Saddam in a restaurant. A US plane dropped four very clever 2,000lb bombs on it. The next night, BBC News showed an enormous crater and its correspondent said that no one who might have been there could have got out alive. According to Peter Arnett, the sacked NBC correspondent, the targeted restaurant was still intact, but three neighbouring houses were reduced to rubble instead. According to most people, Saddam escaped. When asked about this, Torie Clarke, the US defence spokeswoman, said crisply: "I don't think that matters very much. I'm not losing sleep trying to figure out if he was in there."

    I don't know how much of the above paragraph - apart from Clarke's words, which I saw coming out of her mouth - is true. It probably approximates to some sort of truth, and it's possible that years down the line an accurate version might emerge: how good was the tip-off, how accurate was the bombing, how many were killed, and how many of those were civilians? But I know this: if I were Clarke, I would think I ought to lose a little sleep. If I were Clarke, I might wonder about my American home town, and how secure it might be from terrorist attack. Because if her words, in their brutal flippancy, seemed shocking to me, then imagine their effect on someone whose father, brother, sister, friend, acquaintance was killed in that raid. Would they say, "It was a sacrifice we are happy to accept, because after all, you were trying to kill Saddam Hussein"? No, I doubt they would react like that.

    As the war began, like others I tried to imagine what the best result might be. A quick war with single-figure casualties and Saddam ousted painlessly? But that might mean Rumsfeld and co merely forcing their troops to Damascus and Tehran, centres of acknowledged recalcitrance and listed evil. A slow, horrible war with so many Anglo-American dead that leaders in both countries would realise that go-it-alone invasions, which look to neutrals like neo-imperialism, were simply not practicable. But that would mean wishing for the extinction of hundreds, maybe thousands of troops, and even more civilians. An unanswerable either-or. So, something in-between? Well, something in-between is what we're getting. Enough for some to call it a stunning professional victory, others a vile and unnecessary bloodbath.

    But there's another tacit calculation going on. The war depends on domestic public support. Public support depends in part on disguising the reality of war (hence the hypocritical hoo-ha about the "parading" of prisoners) and on calculating the acceptability of death. So what would be the best way of scoring the game? Someone, somewhere, some Machiavellian focus-grouper or damage statistician, is probably doing just this. Let's start with the basic unit: one dead Iraqi soldier, score one point. Two for a dead Republican Guard, three for Special Republican Guard or fedayeen. And so on up to the top of the regime: 5,000, let's say, for Chemical Ali; 7,500 for each of Saddam's sons; 10,000 for the tyrant himself.

    Now for the potentially demoralising downside. One Iraqi civilian killed: if male, lose five points, female 10, a child 20. One coalition soldier killed: deduct 50 points. And then, worst of all (as it underlines the futility and hazard of war), one coalition soldier killed by friendly fire: deduct 100 points. On the other hand, gain 1,000 for each incident which a couple of years down the line can give rise to a feel-good Hollywood movie: witness "Saving Private Lynch".

    By this count, the war is a success. And television has more or less reflected the weighting of the above scoresheet: film a swaddled, bleeding, terrified child in hospital and airtime is guaranteed. With what blithe unconcern, too, it has disregarded the one-pointers. How have the Iraqi military been presented? a) as massively outgunned; b) as foolishly sallying forth in columns and making themselves easy meat for aerial attack (though the words "turkey shoot" have doubtless been sensitively banned); c) as experimental subjects for live testing of daisycutter bombs; d) as "fanatically loyal", ie still fighting when massively outgunned; e) as running away in their underpants.

    The return of British bodies has been given full-scale TV coverage: the Union-Jacked coffin, the saluting Prince Andrew, the waggling kilts of soldiers escorting the hearse of their fallen comrades. Then each dead soldier's face comes up on screen, sometimes in a blurry home colour print, with listing of wife, fiancee, children: it thuds on the emotions. But Iraqi soldiers? They're just dead. The Guardian told us in useful detail how the British Army breaks bad news to families. What happens in Iraq? Who tells whom? Does news even get through? Do you just wait for your 18-year-old conscript son to come home or not to come home? Do you get the few bits that remain after he has been pulverised by our bold new armaments? There aren't many equivalences around in this war, but you can be sure that the equivalence of grief exists. Here come the widow-makers, goes the cry as our tanks advance. Here too come the unwitting recruiters for al-Qaida.

    For all the coverage, I don't know what I've seen. Embedding journalists has certainly worked from the military point of view. This is not to disparage them, and they have taken proportionally much greater casualties than the military. But they can at best provide footage, which is not the same as telling us what is actually happening; for that they, and we, depend on official spokesmen. And journalists have to be approved. French television ran a documentary about journalists who had been refused approval, and thus access. British television lets us assume we are getting as much, and as pure, information as it is possible to give in the circumstances.

    But in wartime we are even less able, and willing, than usual to see ourselves as others see us. For us, the war consists of coalition troops, Saddam, Iraqi troops, and Iraqi civilians; with bit-parts for the Kurds and Turkey. In the first days of the war I saw a report on French television news which told me - I think - that the US had closed down its embassy and cultural centre in Pakistan; I say "I think" because I never saw it confirmed here. Reaction from the wider Arab world has been sketchily covered, as if to say: let's pretend this is a localised struggle with no wider repercussions, and then it might be. A friend of mine, who works in television, quickly realised he wasn't getting the full picture and signed his household up for six months of al-Jazeera. Only when his wife asked where he'd been learning Arabic did he realise the flaw in his thinking. But his instinct was absolutely right.

    As Baghdad falls to conventional warfare, I keep remembering that mantra in Jack Straw's mouth: "nuclear, chemical and biological." He repeated it again and again while trying to round up support. Then the "nuclear" had to go, after the UN inspection report. So it was down to the other two villains. Like some, I believed (no, "very much wanted to believe" is as close as you get in this world of claim and counterclaim) Scott Ritter's judgment that if the Iraqis still had some bad stuff, it was past its use-by date and turning into hair-gel. Even so, it seemed a grotesque gamble on Bush and Blair's part to seek to prove that Iraq had chemical and biological weapons by provoking Saddam to use them against coalition troops. Now we're told that the wily bastard has moved them to Syria. (Hey, let's invade Syria! Then he might move them to Iran. We could look there afterwards!)

    The peacenik question before the war went like this: suppose Saddam destroys all his weapons tomorrow, do we still invade on humanitarian grounds? I can't imagine there would have been too many cries of, Yes please. But that, in retrospect, may be what we've done, or shall endeavour to claim we have done and therefore had been intending. Does it look like a humanitarian war to you? Are "shock and awe" compatible with "hearts and minds"? Early on, a US infantryman was seen grimly returning fire over a sand dune, then turning to camera and complaining: "They don't seem to realise we're here to help them." How odd that they didn't.

    In the past three weeks, I've had emails from friends in different parts of the world. Almost without fail, they have expressed incredulity at our prime minister's position. "We can understand Bush, we see exactly where he's coming from, we aren't surprised by his gross limitations and gross ambitions. But what is your Blair up to? He seems a civilised, intelligent man. What does he think he's doing? And what on earth does he think he's getting out of it?" Oil? Reconstruction contracts? Hardly. As for what he thinks he's doing: it seems, I explain, to be a mixture of deluded idealism (finding a moral case for war where neither the Anglican bishops nor the Pope - moral experts he might acknowledge - can see one) and deluded pragmatism: he really does believe the military conquest of Iraq will reduce the likelihood of terrorism.

    This is Blair's War; and as he reminded us, history will be his judge. But since we'll all be dead by the time history comes along, three key Blair moments should be pondered. The first came long before the war was mooted. The prime minister was asked in the House of Commons about Iraq and replied with a satisfied gleam: "Saddam is in his cage." At the time I merely noted the crudeness of the diction, which is why the phrase has stuck. What few of us realised at the time was that the self-appointed zookeepers were abrogating to themselves the right to shoot the beast.

    Then the question of the second UN resolution. Do you remember being told that we wouldn't go to war without a second resolution? How quickly came the slippage. On the February 15 anti-war march, one of the talking-points was how Blair seemed to have shafted himself: if he didn't get a second resolution, he would have to choose between going back on his promise to the British people or going back on his friendship with Bush. Soon, we knew his choice, which led to a third key moment. When accused once too often of being Bush's poodle, Blair responded that, on the contrary, if Bush had proved timorous over Iraq, he, Blair, would have been pressing him harder to take action. Not a typical example of our "restraining influence".

    Well, peacenik, are you happy now that peace is coming? No, because I don't think this war, as conceived and justified, was worth a child's finger. At least, are you happy that Saddam's rule is effectively over? Yes, of course, like everyone else. So, do you see some incompatibility here? Yes, but less than the incompatibilities in your position.

    And in return, warnik, I have two questions for you. Do you honestly believe that the staggering bombardment of Iraq, televised live throughout the Arab world, has made Britain, America, and the home town of Torie Clarke, safer from the threat of terrorism? And if so, let me remind you of another statement by your war leader, Mr Blair. He told us, in full seriousness, that once Saddam was eliminated, it would be necessary to "deal with" North Korea. Are you getting hot for the next one - the humanitarian attack on Pyongyang?
    ©Julian Barnes 2003


    Wolfowitz: Iraq war was about oil

    George Wright
    Wednesday June 4, 2003

    Oil was the main reason for military action against Iraq, a leading White House hawk has claimed, confirming the worst fears of those opposed to theUS-led war. The US deputy defence secretary, Paul Wolfowitz - who has already underminedTony Blair's position over weapons of mass destruction (WMD) by describing them as a "bureau-cratic" excuse for war - has now gone further by claimingthe real motive was that Iraq is "swimming" in oil.
    The latest comments were made by Mr Wolfowitz in an address to delegates at an Asian security summit in Singapore at the weekend, and reported today by German  news-papers Der Tagesspiegel and Die Welt.  Asked why a nuclear power such as North Korea was being treated differently from Iraq, where hardly any weapons of mass destruction had been found, the deputy defence minister said: "Let's look at it simply. The most importantdifference between North Korea and Iraq is that economically, we just had no choice in Iraq. The country swims on a sea of oil." Mr. Wolfowitz went on to tell journalists at the conference that the US wasset on a path of negotiation to help defuse tensions between North Korea and its neighbours - in contrast to the more belligerent attitude the Bush administration displayed in its dealings with Iraq.
    His latest comments follow his widely reported statement from an interview in Vanity Fair last month, in which he said that "for reasons that have a lot to do with the US government bureaucracy, we settled on the one issue that everyone could agree on: weapons of mass destruction."  Prior to that, his boss, defence secretary Donald Rumsfeld, had already undermined the British government's position by saying Saddam Hussein may have destroyed his banned weapons before the war.
    Mr Wolfowitz's frank assessment of the importance of oil could not come at a worst time for the US and UK governments, which are both facing fierce criticism at home and abroad over allegations that they exaggerated the threat post by Saddam Hussein in order to justify the war.  Amid growing calls from all parties for a public inquiry, the foreign affairs select committee announced last night it would investigate claims that the UK government misled the country over its evidence of Iraq's WMD.  The move is a major setback for Tony Blair, who had hoped to contain any inquiry within the intelligence and security committee, which meets in secret and reports to the prime minister.
    In the US, the failure to find solid proof of chemical, biological and nuclear arms in Iraq has raised similar concerns over Mr Bush's justification for the war and prompted calls for congressional investigations.  Mr Wolfowitz is viewed as one of the most hawkish members of the Bush administration. The 57-year old expert in international relations was a strong advocate of military action against Afghanistan and Iraq.
    Following the September 11 terror attacks on the World Trade Centre and Pentagon, Mr Wolfowitz pledged that the US would pursue terrorists and "end"states sponsoring or harbouring militants.  Prior to his appointment to the Bush cabinet in February 2001, Mr Wolfowitzwas dean and professor of international relations at the Paul H Nitze School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS), of the Johns Hopkins University.


    Looters swarm into new areas as key bridges are opened

    Iraqis disappointed with U.S. response

    By Hamza Hendawi, Associated Press, 4/12/03

    BAGHDAD, Iraq U.S. forces reopened two strategic bridges Saturday in the heart of Baghdad and crowds of looters surged across -- taking advantage of access to new territory that had not already been plundered. U.S. forces did nothing to stop them.

    Iraqis expressed increasing frustration over the lawlessness that has gripped the capital since the arrival of U.S. troops and the fall of Saddam Hussein. Looters ransacked government buildings, hospitals and schools, and trashed the National Museum, taking or destroying many of the country's archaeological treasures.

    A museum employee arrived Saturday to find the administrative offices trashed by looters. The only thing she could salvage was a telephone book-sized volume. She refused to give her name. With tears, she said, "It is all the fault of the Americans. This is Iraq's civilization. And it's all gone now."

    An elderly museum guard said hundreds of looters attacked Thursday and carried away artifacts on pushcarts and wheelbarrows. The two-story museum's marble staircase was chipped, suggesting looters might have dragged heavier items down on pushcarts or slabs of wood. Glass display cases were shattered and broken pieces of ancient pottery and statues were scattered everywhere.

    The National Museum held artifacts from thousands of years of history in the Tigris-Euphrates basin, widely held to be the site of the world's earliest civilizations. Before the war, the museum closed its doors and secretly placed the most precious artifacts in storage, but the metal storeroom doors were smashed and everything was taken.

    "This is the property of this nation and is the treasure of 7,000 years of civilization," said museum employee Ali Mahmoud. "What does this country think it is doing?"

    On Baghdad's chaotic streets, it appeared American troops were doing nothing to curb the feverish looting. Troops could be seen waving looters through checkpoints and standing idly in front of buildings while they were being pillaged.

    Looters swarmed over the Al-Rasheed and the Al-Jumhuriya bridges across the Tigris River, which divides the city. They pushed into several government buildings, including the Planning Ministry, which sits on the edge of the old palace presidential compound on the river's west bank.

    Looters were also seen coming out of the Foreign Ministry carrying office furniture, TV sets and air conditioners. Children wheeled out office chairs and rolled them down the street.

    U.S. soldiers stood by at the presidential compound as looters some 400 yards away hauled bookshelves, computers and sofas from the Planning Ministry. Bands of men with tools plundered cars nearby for wheels or other parts.

    "The Americans have disappointed us all. This country will never be operational for at least a year or two," said Abbas Reta, 51, an engineer and father of five.

    "I've seen nothing new since Saddam's fall," he said. "All that we have seen is looting. The Americans are responsible. One round from their guns and all the looting would have stopped."

    U.S. Army troops and armor blocked access to the main palace grounds. The Oil Ministry also seemed intact with a heavy U.S. military presence inside. Also intact were some of the power installations, power stations and power grids.

    Al-Jazeera's correspondent in Baghdad, Maher Abdallah, described the situation as "tragic," and suggested it could have been prevented.

    "They have ousted the regime and the authority, and in such an urban area where there is no tribal authority or rule, chaos should have been expected to break in such a way," Abdallah said.

    U.S. officials insist the restoration of law and order will become a higher priority.

    The State Department said Friday it was sending 26 police and judicial officers to Iraq, the first component of a team that will eventually number about 1,200. The officers will be part of a group led by Jay Garner, the retired general chosen by the Bush administration to run the initial Iraqi civil administration under American occupation.


    Looters ransack Baghdad museum

    Baghdad residents inspect looted treasure
    Many precious items have been stolen by looters
    Thousands of valuable historical items from Baghdad's main museum have been taken or destroyed by looters.

    Nabhal Amin, deputy director at the Iraqi National Museum, blamed the destruction on the United States for not taking control of the situation on the streets.

    On Saturday, Unesco - the UN's cultural agency - has urged the US and Britain to deploy troops at Iraq's key archaeological sites and museums to stop widespread looting and destruction.

    Armed men have been roaming the streets of Baghdad since the city was taken by US troops on Wednesday.

    Shops, government offices, presidential palaces and even hospitals have all been looted.

    Call for protection

    A museum guard said that since Thursday, hundreds of looters had carried away artefacts on carts and wheelbarrows.

    The museum's deputy director said looters had taken or destroyed 170,000 items of antiquity dating back thousands of years.

    "They were worth billions of dollars," she said

    "The Americans were supposed to protect the museum. If they had just one tank and two soldiers nothing like this would have happened."

    Reporters who visited the museum on Saturday saw smashed display cases and broken pieces of pottery.

    Ancient cities

    Treasures at the museum date back 5,000 years to the dawn of civilisation in Mesopotamia, as Iraq was once known.

    Ancient archers
    Iraq's history stretches back thousands of years
    It houses items from ancient Babylon and Nineveh, Sumerian statues, Assyrian reliefs and 5,000-year-old tablets bearing some of the earliest known writing.

    There are also gold and silver items from the Ur cemetery.

    The museum re-opened to the public six months ago - it had remained closed since the beginning of the 1991 Gulf War.

    Iraq is a cradle of civilisation, with thousands of archaeological sites spanning more than 10,000 years.

    It is the birthplace of agriculture, empires were in Iraq and the origins of writing have been traced to the region.

    Certain organisations, including the British Museum, had called for historical sites to be protected before the current conflict started.

    Some of the museum's artefacts had been moved into storage to avoid a repeat of damage to other antiquities during the 1991 Gulf War.

    Pentagon Reveals Plans for Massive Civilian Casualties in Iraq  --- U.S. forces to use 10 times amount of bombs in start of Gulf War

    March 5, 2003--Anti-War Activists Preparing for National Mass Marches in Washington & San Francisco on Mar. 15

    The New York Times reported today that a Pentagon war plan against Iraq would drop 3,000 precision-guided bombs and missiles in the first 48 hours, followed with a nearly simultaneous attack by land and sea, with the goal of "shocking the Iraqi leadership into submission quickly." The plan would use 10 times as many bombs as in the opening days of the Gulf War, and would result in massive civilian casualties.

    General Richard B. Myers, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, stated "'If your template is Desert Storm, you have to imagine something much, much, much different,'" in a warning to journalists covering the war from Baghdad. He said the Pentagon plan was "'to have such a shock on the system that the Iraqi regime would have to assume early on the end was inevitable.'" U.S. troops ready for attack in the Persian Gulf will soon number 300,000.

    "What General Myers is referring to is a high-tech slaughter of Iraqi civilians in order to overwhelm Iraq into submission," said Bill Hackwell, organizer with the International A.N.S.W.E.R. (Act Now to Stop War & End Racism) Coalition, a leading anti-war group in the U.S. "The Bush administration is preparing to turn the U.S. war machine, the biggest armada in history, on a poor country and cause a bloodbath like we have never seen. People across the world who are alarmed at this ruthless aggression are organizing feverishly for the next major anti-war marches around the world on March 15."

    The March 15 National Mass Anti-War March in San Francisco will gather at 11 am at Civic Center Plaza for a rally and march. It is co-sponsored by the International A.N.S.W.E.R. (Act Now to Stop War & End Racism) Coalition, United for Peace & Justice; Bay Area United Against War; Not In Our Name Project; Vanguard Foundation & Vanguard Alliance; U.S. Labor Against the War; Bay Area Vets for Peace and many others.

    Activists are also preparing for emergency response protests if the war breaks out in the next two weeks. If war breaks out, in San Francisco people will walk-out of school & work or leave home and meet at Civic Center at 12 noon, and at Powell & Market Streets at 5 pm.

    For more information or updates, call A.N.S.W.E.R. at 415-821-6545 or check .

    International A.N.S.W.E.R. (Act Now to Stop War & End Racism) 2489 Mission St., Rm. 24
    San Francisco, CA 94110
    Phone: 415-821-6545

    Iraq: ICRC calls urgently for protection of the civilian population and services and of persons no longer fighting
    Geneva (ICRC) The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) is profoundly alarmed by the chaos currently prevailing in Baghdad and other parts of Iraq. Lawless persons, sometimes armed, have been ransacking and looting even essential public facilities such as hospitals and water-supply installations.

    Hospitals in Baghdad are closed because of combat damage, looting or fear of looting. Hardly any medical or support staff are still reporting for work. Patients have either fled the hospitals or have been left without care. The medical system in Baghdad has virtually collapsed. The dead are left unattended, and the increasing summer heat and deteriorating water and electricity supplies create a high risk of epidemic disease.

    The ICRC urgently appeals to the Coalition forces and all other persons in authority to do everything possible to protect essential infrastructure such as hospitals and water-supply and evacuation systems from looting and destruction. In areas under their control, the Coalition forces have specific responsibilities as Occupying Powers under international humanitarian law. These include taking all measures in their power to restore and maintain, as far as possible, public order and safety by putting a halt to pillage and to violence against civilians and civilian facilities.

    Civilian facilities which have been damaged or destroyed must be repaired as soon as possible, in order to ensure that the basic needs of the population can be met. Water and electricity supplies are vital. Medical units and personnel must be protected and their work facilitated, and access to them by all persons in need, whether military or civilian, friend or foe, must be granted. In all circumstances, the Red Cross and Red Crescent emblem must be respected.

    To the fullest extent of the means available to them, the occupying forces have a duty to ensure that the population has sufficient supplies in terms of water, food and medical care. As the temporary administrators of the occupied territory, the Occupying Powers must support public services and manage resources primarily in the interests of the population, without discrimination. If the whole or part of the population under occupation is not adequately supplied, the Occupying Powers must allow impartial humanitarian organizations to undertake assistance operations. However, the provision of humanitarian aid in no way relieves the Occupying Powers of their administrator's responsibilities towards the population under occupation.

    All persons deprived of their freedom and held in enemy hands must be spared and protected, in accordance with the Third or the Fourth Geneva Convention, depending on whether they are combatants or civilians. Prisoners of war must be treated humanely at all times. The ICRC has been granted access to POWs in Coalition hands. It is deeply concerned that this is not the case as regards Coalition POWs captured by Iraqi forces, and strongly urges those who are holding them today to afford them protection and treat them in full observance of the provisions of the Third Geneva Convention, including their entitlement to ICRC visits.

    Wherever military operations are taking place, constant care must be taken to spare the civilian population and civilian objects. All those bearing arms must take all necessary precautions to avoid exposing civilians to the dangers resulting from military activity. The wounded and the dead must be evacuated without delay. Acts of perfidy are prohibited.

    The ICRC, which has been present and active in Iraq throughout the conflict, is fully committed to pursuing the tasks incumbent upon it under the Geneva Conventions, to working for the faithful application of international humanitarian law, and to endeavour to ensure that all victims of the conflict and of its consequences receive protection and assistance.

    Further information:
    Antonella Notari, ICRC Geneva, tel. ++41 22 730 22 82 / ++41 79 217 32 80
    Nada Doumani, ICRC Geneva, tel. ++41 22 730 27 56 / ++41 79 244 64 14
    Florian Westphal, ICRC Geneva, tel. ++41 22 730 29 30 / ++41 79 217 32 26
    Roland Huguenin, ICRC Baghdad, tel. ++873 761 845 610


    American Woman Goes Door to Door to Count Iraqi Casualties 
    July 1, 2003 . . .  

    IRAQ - The Pentagon keeps a precise count of U.S. casualties in the war in Iraq. But the question of how many Iraqis lost their lives remains as mysterious as the whereabouts of Saddam Hussein or the location of all those weapons of mass destruction.

    While many complain, protest or become apathetic, Marla Ruzicka, 26, from the San Francisco Bay Area decided to DO something personally. She has been in Baghdad since the day Saddam's statue fell in the city center. She has been doing a headcount of the Iraqi injured and the dead. She's found more than she expected.

    She has formed her own nonprofit organization, called the Campaign for Innocent Victims in Conflict, or CIVIC. She has organized 150 surveyors to fan out across Iraq. So far, they say they have documented 620 civilian deaths in Baghdad, 256 in Najaf, 425 in Karbala and as many as 1,100 in Nasiriyah. It is only a preliminary count. "Somewhere between 5,000 to 10,000 people died in this conflict," Ruzicka said.

    Ruzicka's survey teams conduct their search door to door. On Saturday, she visited the village of Rashidiya, a small farm town on the banks of the Tigris River. On April 5, U.S. warplanes strafed the village, killing nearly 100 people. All of them were civilians. In one house, 17-month-old Haider al Hamadi was the only member of his family to escape unscathed. He lost his mother, his three sisters and two brothers. His father survived, but lost three fingers. In another home, 42 people in one extended family were killed. Many were visiting from Baghdad in an effort to keep their children safe from the blitz.

    It's more than numbers and statistics. "Each number represents a case, a need, represents a father, a mother, a loss of life," she said.

    Ruzicka does not represent the U.S. government. She's not affiliated with any government relief agency. She is a lone activist who has taken it upon herself to help the civilian victims of war.

    It is a difficult process, in part because there continue to be casualties almost every day. But there is still no official tally of how many Iraqi lives were lost military or civilian. Iraq's military kept all records secret. And the civilian documents are unreliable.

    Each hospital keeps a handwritten book of the dead. There is no master list. And the hospital records are in disarray after the flood of casualties during the war, and the looters who came after. Cemeteries are poorly marked. Many burials were not documented at all. And it is difficult to tell the military from the civilian dead because of the tactics Saddam's forces employed during the war: dressing in civilian clothes, staging in civilian neighborhoods, putting civilian lives at risk.

    "It takes time, that's why we cant give you a number today or tomorrow," said Ruzicka. "Our goal beyond getting assistance to the innocent families that are harmed is to get a proper accounting of war."

    It is painstaking work, meeting one on one with people whose lives have been ruined.

    Ruzicka's task started in Amman, Jordan, two months ago. She attended the funeral of the man believed to be the first civilian casualty in this war a Jordanian taxi driver killed the first night of bombing. While the U.S. ambassador sent a letter, she was the only American to personally offer condolences to the grieving family.

    Now, every day, she meets with new victims, in sessions that often seem like group therapy. "Yes, a number is important," she said, "but it's not as important as making sure that we recognize that each number is a life. Ultimately, we can get them long-term medical care. We can get their homes rebuilt and possibly it's a hard possibility but what we're working or is some economic assistance."

    The U.S. military says it does everything it can to ensure that innocent civilians don't get caught in the crossfire. But mistakes happen; war is messy. Ruzicka's ultimate goal is to win compensation for these people, which is no easy task.

    The only real precedent for compensating civilian casualties comes from Afghanistan, and Ruzicka helped to make it happen by successfully lobbying the U.S. Congress to help innocent victims of that war.

    In Afghanistan, Ruzicka's survey confirmed 824 civilian deaths although she believes at least double that number died in the U.S. campaign to oust the Taliban and al Qaeda. She convinced Sen. Patrick Leahy, D-Vt., to insert language in an appropriations bill, allocating $3.75 million to help the Afghan victims.

    "Marla Ruzicka is somebody out there saying, 'Wait, everybody. Here's what's really happening. You better know about this,' " said Leahy. "We have whistle-blowers in industry. Maybe sometimes we need whistle-blowers in foreign policy."

    But in Iraq, one person, however determined, is bound to have trouble getting the attention of the U.S. military, which has its hands full. Just wading through the bureaucracy can take days.

    Ruzicka is also chronically short on money. She now has $50 left in her bank account, so she is applying for a grant from the U.S. Agency for International Development. Until that comes through, she relies on the help of her friends. But while other aid agencies are still getting organized in Iraq, still tentatively working out the difficult security situation, Ruzicka is already out there, trying as much as one person can to help.

    Marla Ruzicka can be reached at Her Web site is: 

    (Adapted from an article by David Wright, ABC News, Wednesday 28 May, 2003)


    UN agencies stress dangers to relief efforts from lawlessness in Iraq
    Report, United Nations

    11 April 2003

    Stressing repeatedly the very grave threat posed to humanitarian activities in Iraq by current lawlessness and looting, United Nations relief agencies appealed to coalition forces today to act swiftly to avoid the breakdown of all aid efforts for the civilian population.

    Hospitals had closed down for fear of looters, child nutritional posts were being ransacked, large groups were fleeing Baghdad and other cities in search of safety and security, and water delivery to one hard-pressed city had been postponed until further notice because of insecurity, the agencies told the daily briefing in Amman, Jordan, on UN humanitarian activities.

    The UN Humanitarian Coordinator for Iraq (UNHCOI) said looting and lawlessness continued in Baghdad, Basrah, Kirkuk and Mosul, and the UN was still awaiting a reply from the US military command on what its official policy position was on "this extremely critical situation." The reply was expected yesterday but had not yet been delivered, spokesman David Wimhurst said.

    The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) had been unable to visit hospitals in Baghdad yesterday or today, he added. Many hospitals and health facilities there had closed their doors fearing attacks by looters, and the Al Kindi hospital, which was ransacked yesterday, had now been abandoned by its staff, with the fate of its patients who were unable to seek shelter elsewhere unknown.

    In the south hospitals and health facilities were struggling to maintain services in spite of staffing shortages, lack of medical supplies and inconsistent water and power, Mr. Wimhurst said. The UN Children's Fund (UNICEF) was delivering water, but insecurity was affecting operations, he added. Water tank deliveries to Nasiriya had been postponed until further notice, and in the port of Um Qasr, a tanker taking water to a health centre had to withdraw due to an aggressive crowd.

    The High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR), Sergio Vieira de Mello, was seriously concerned by the worsening situation in Baghdad and urged the coalition to ensure immediately the well being of civilians under its control in accordance with its obligations under international humanitarian law, spokesperson Bela Kapur said.

    OHCHR was ready to send human rights officers to Baghdad, as soon as security conditions permitted, to help the prevention of new human rights violations and to document violations that had already taken place, she added.

    The World Health Organization (WHO) said the situation being reported from Baghdad, Basra, Zubair, Kirkuk, Mosul and other towns was "extremely alarming," and it urged the military forces and remaining civilian authorities to quickly restore law and order and ensure the safety of hospitals and hospital staff.

    The ICRC reported that Al Kindi hospital in Baghdad had been completely emptied by looters, with even the beds stolen, spokesperson Fadela Chaib said.

    UNICEF added its voice to the "great alarm." When chaos and lawlessness rule, the most vulnerable segment of the population - the country's children - were certain to suffer, spokesman Geoffrey Keele declared.

    Noting that nutritional rehabilitation centres in paediatric hospitals had managed to reduce malnutrition by more than 50 per cent, he said that now when children needed these services the most, they were being dismantled, chair my chair, table by table, medicine by medicine.

    All steps must be taken by the coalition forces to ensure that vital social infrastructure was preserved, he added. Otherwise all aid attempts would be hindered and "quite frankly, people may die." He also reported 40 more cases of severe children's diarrhoea in Um Qasr.

    The World Food Programme (WFP), which has sent in food convoys to northern Iraq from Turkey, also called on the occupying forces "to do their best to maintain law and order to enable our work to expand quickly to the rest of the country," spokesman Khaled Mansour said.

    The UN High Commissioner for the Refugees (UNHCR) echoed the call. While there had so far been no major refugee flow out of Iraq, spokesman Peter Kessler said large groups of Iraqis and foreign nationals were reportedly still moving from Baghdad and other cities, trying to find security and safety. Up to 30,000 displaced Iraqis had reportedly reached the Iraqi border town of Badrah, near western Iran, seeking assistance after fleeing fighting in Baghdad and Nasiriya, he added.

    People were fleeing because they were desperate and frightened by the chaos in the streets around them, and it was "absolutely imperative" that coalition forces provide a policing function to ensure security on the street and the cities, he said.

    May 1, 2003

    Killings in Al Fallujah, City of Mosques

    Has America Taken on a New Military Culture with New Rules that Allow Us to Kill Civilians at Will?


    Al Fallujah is known in Iraq as the "city of mosques." There is a reverence for the holiness of the city and Muslim leaders made clear to American troops that they did not want them in their city. The US troops responded by saying they had to be there for "security." The Muslim leaders, led by Sunni Imam Jamal Mahmood, said they had their own security. The US troops were determined to stay. They say, Saddam had weapons factories there. The Iraqis say the "factories" have been destroyed and there is no need for the US troops to stay. This is a situation that the Americans cannot say is being fomented by the Shi'a or Iran because Al Fallujah has always been a Sunni stronghold.

    What happened next has raised questions among Iraqis and many international Middle East experts. Crowds gathered and demanded the troops leave. As the crowds became louder and more insistent, the American troops fired into the crowd and killed 13 people and injured more than 20 more according to doctors at the local hospital. The American troops said they were fired on; but all other witnesses at the scene denied the gunfire came from the demonstrators. Today, 2 more people were killed and more injured, with the Muslims of Al Fallujah and the city officials saying no one shot at the Americans, the American troops claiming otherwise.

    There is something troubling about this situation. Why is it that crowds of people cannot be dispersed by tear gas rather than bullets? Certainly, this is not an unknown tactic.

    Furthermore, why is it that the American troops insist in remaining or trying to remain in these "holy cities"? Surely, the commanders must be at least half way intelligent; they should know this will cause upset and protests. Or, are these commanders following orders from above so that there can be cause for firing on the crowds in order to terrorize them into submission-just as the Israelis do to the Palestinians? Are the American troops following the Israeli style of occupation, massive force, even against stone and shoe throwing protesters to show them that America controls Iraq and that the Iraqis had better get used to it in a hurry?

    Where did I get this idea. Ironically, from a rabbi who is a friend of mine, a man who protested Sharon's brutality in Israel because he said it was against Judaism. He called me and said, "Look at that, it's Israel and Palestine all over again!" At first, I thought it was his fixation and anger, but then as time went on, I began to feel that he was right.

    Just as America has hired many former KGB agents to work with the Homeland Security Agency, so too has the National Transportation Security Agency that "protects airports" hired many former Mossad agents. We also have the tie in between the Israeli and the American military on so many levels, why not on the levels of strategy and crowd control. This is not normal command procedures for American troops when confronted by a demonstrating crowd; they are told not to cause civilian casualties-at least they were up until this new administration. Has something changed in our military rules of engagement when dealing with crowds? Has America taken on a new military culture? If so, we need to know.

    I am worried that our men are becoming part of a new brutality as seen through their behavior in Iraq. I remember one young soldier, early in the war, when interviewed on TV saying, "I want to get my nose wet-I want to get me some Iraqis, I want to kick some butt." These are not the words of a mature human being-they are the mouthings of an immature and impressionable TV spawned juvenile who neither realizes the value of human life or the humanity of the soldier fighting on the other side. Many of the US military, when I have heard them at West Point and in Annapolis, sound the same as our Commander in Chief, Bush, when he says, "I'm gonna git him, dead or alive."

    It almost sounds as if he's come out of a bad Western movie. But to hear Rumsfeld, Cheney and Franks and some of the other generals speak, I can start to believe that our men are getting the same cruel orders the Israelis have given their soldiers when they go in and kill demonstrators. If not, then why were there children killed in this massacre they perpetrated in the last few days in Al Fallujah? Surely, the children did not shoot at them, if anyone shot at them at all. NO, something is wrong in this scenario and should be the subject of congressional hearings. Just what are the orders to our soldiers and who is giving them. There has to be an explanation for the shootings in Al Fallujah two days in a row, without apology; with a terse, "we heard gun shots coming at us"-with the Imams and the cities leaders contradicting them.

    It is also strange that the people have their own security, but that our troops refuse to leave, but want to remain to provide "security" and end up shooting civilians in the town square just because they were protesting. But lest you say I am one-sided, allow me to say, suppose there were shots at them. I understand, having been in combat, that you would consider shooting back. However, we always understood that you don't just shoot your gun off at first blush, you have to look at what the situation is, where the shots may be coming from, and then the best way to return fire without killing innocent civilians in the process-this is true in the military and in our police training. To shoot into the crowd of protesters two days in a row, killing unarmed civilians (in all cases these people killed had no weapons, though someone else, somewhere else, may have had weapons-that is still a moot point), including children, is not something our military has ever allowed, advocated or allowed to happen without arrests and punishment.

    As a veteran and as a US citizen, I am waiting to see what the military will do about these killings in Al Fallujah. I hope our congress will look into this matter and find out if our troops are being given new orders of engagements toward civilians, or are our troops so poorly trained that they panic at the slightest thing.

    Sam Hamod is an expert on world affairs, especially the Arab and Muslim worlds, former editor of THIRD WORLD NEWS (in Wash, DC), a professor at Princeton University, former Director of The National Islamic Center of Washington, DC, an advisor to the US State Department and author of ISLAM IN THE WORLD TODAY. He may be reached at



    Despite Protests, U.S. Soldiers Detain Photographer and Driver

    Associated Press
    Wednesday, September 24, 2003

    BAGHDAD, Sept. 23 -- U.S. soldiers detained an Associated Press photographer and driver today, handcuffing them, forcing them to stand in the sun for three hours and denying them water and use of a telephone.

    Soldiers from the 2nd Battalion, 70th Armored Regiment, 1st Armored Division detained photographer Karim Kadim and driver Mohammed Abbas near Abu Ghraib, west of Baghdad, and kept guns trained on the two Iraqis despite their repeated attempts to explain they were journalists.

    The troops were looking for explosives planted in the area.

    "We identified ourselves from the very beginning as press, even before we approached the troops," Kadim said. "I was asked not to take any pictures and I didn't. We were told to leave and we walked away, and then one of them shouted at us to come back."

    An armored personnel carrier arrived moments later. Three soldiers disembarked and aimed their guns at the two men.

    "We were searched, and they took away all my camera gear. Then our hands were tied behind our backs, first with rope, and then with plastic handcuffs," Kadim said.

    The two were made to stand for three hours in temperatures of 110 degrees. Abbas said the soldiers accused them of being part of the insurgency attacking U.S. troops.

    The two were taken to a U.S. base, where Maj. Eric Wick apologized. Wick also called the AP office in Baghdad and said the incident "was a misunderstanding on our part."

    On Thursday, U.S. soldiers shot up Kadim's car in Khaldiya during a firefight after an American convoy was hit with a remote-controlled roadside bomb. Kadim and another driver jumped from the car after they saw a tank had them in its sights. They were fired on as they ran and the car was badly damaged, but neither man was hurt. The AP sent a letter of protest to the U.S. military in Baghdad.

    © 2003 The Washington Post Company
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    Iraqi boy airlifted to burns unit
    Ali at hospital in Kuwait City
    Ali is led by Kuwaiti doctors into the hospital
    A young Iraqi boy who lost both his arms and most of his family in a coalition air raid has arrived in Kuwait to begin specialist treatment for his injuries.

    Ali Ismail Abbas, who is 12, left the Baghdad hospital where he was being treated and was flown to the southern Iraqi city of Nasiriya, from where he was airlifted to Kuwait.

    Ali will be nursed "as long as he needs the treatment" in Kuwait's Ibn Sina hospital, which has a specialist burns treatment centre, a Kuwaiti health ministry spokesman said on Tuesday.

    Medical staff treating the boy had warned that he would die unless he was immediately flown out of the country to receive special care.

    Kuwait is already treating seven Iraqi children injured in the war, the ministry said. All are said to be stable.

    Dr Imad al-Najjadah, one of the doctors who is now treating Ali, told the BBC that the medical team had stabilised him, and begun to remove dead tissue from the burns which are estimated to cover 35% of his body.

    "We are trying to cover him with grafts from our skin bank," he said.

    'Desperate situation'

    Ali's father, his pregnant mother and siblings were killed in an attack on his home in Baghdad in which he was also severely burned.

    The offer of help from Kuwait in his case came after a nurse at the Saddam City hospital in Baghdad, where he was being treated, issued a direct plea to coalition leaders.

    "The situation is desperate. He will die if he stays," she wrote in a letter to US President George W Bush and UK Prime Minister Tony Blair.

    Ali's voice is one among millions of children's voices we're not hearing

    Mr Blair later responded during a meeting of the UK House of Commons, saying that British forces had been in contact with hospital authorities regarding such cases.

    "We will do whatever we can to help him and others in similar situations," he said.

    Ali's plight led to calls for coalition forces operating in Iraq to exercise more care regarding civilian casualties.

    Several charitable organisations and media outlets also raised hundreds of thousands of dollars in money to enable him to be treated.

    Appalling conditions

    Ali's case also highlighted the appalling conditions in Iraqi hospitals, many of which are simply unable to cope, the United Nations Children's Fund (Unicef) has warned.

    "Hospitals are having to deal with ill children without the drugs they need and without water," spokeswoman Kathryn Irwin told BBC News Online.

    "How can you treat someone without clean water?"

    She also warned that unless hospitals got urgent help, more children would became dangerously malnourished, putting more pressure on the hospitals.

    "Ali's voice is one among millions of children's voices we're not hearing," the spokeswoman said.

    In Memoriam
    In Memoriam
    Iraqui Casualties
    as of April 16, 2003
    I do not have the names of any Iraquis, only of Americans, English, Australians and Europeans. Yet it's the Iraqui casualties which are by far the greatest  --  the greatest in number and which are the greatest in devastation and suffering, and the greatest warcrime,  morally and ethically.  Iraqui children have not signed up to be maimed, have not volunteered for their homes to be bombed, have not been paid-- however inadequately our soldiers are paid-- to compensate for arms and legs blown off.


    Civilian --More than 1,250 killed. (Minimum Iraqi estimates as of April 3)
    Military -- At least 2,320 (U.S. military estimates for Baghdad alone).
    Wounded Civilians -- thousands from coalition bombings and  shellings as troops moved into cities such as Bagdad and Basra and Um Qasr, and from cluster bombs, and from mines which Hussein's Republican guard planted by the thousands throughout the countryside.    Ismail Abbas, who is 12, lost his two arms and suffered burns over 35% of hi body, in a bombing which took the lives of his parents and siblings. Ismail left the Baghdad hospital where he was being treated and was flown to the southern Iraqi city of Nasiriya, from where he was airlifted to Kuwait. Ali will be nursed "as long as he needs the treatment" in Kuwait's Ibn Sina hospital, which has a specialist burns treatment centre, a Kuwaiti health ministry spokesman said on Tuesday.  Kuwait is also treating seven other Iraqui children who were badly burned in the U.S. bombings.  Hospitals do not have electricity in many of the beseiged cities, and now that "occupation" is a reality, doctors and support staff cannot make it to the hospitals to care for the wounded because of the danger in the streets, as armed and frenzied mobs loot and shoot.  There is great danger of disease, as populations are forced to drink filthy water -- water and electrcity have yet to be restored to great numbers of people.
    One hundred lives

    Friday May 16, 2003, The Guardian

    We will probably never know how many people died in the Iraq war, let alone much about them. For the coalition dead we have some details, but about the largest group of those killed, Iraqi soldiers, we know almost nothing.

    In the month since the US declared an end to major combat operations, Guardian journalists have been talking to relatives of the deceased of all nationalities and collecting information in order to tell their life stories. One hundred such stories are included in this issue.

    With the help of our readers, we want to create an online memorial for some of the thousands who died in the Iraq war, both to pay tribute to them and to create an accurate resource for the future.

    If you knew anyone who died in the war - civilian or military, of any nationality - and you would like to contribute to the site, email or write to Iraq Memorial, Guardian features, 119 Farringdon Road, London EC1R 3ER, UK. Please include your name, your relationship with the deceased and a daytime telephone number.
    April 15th

    There was no major combat during the day, but at least 10 Iraqis were reported killed and 16 injured in a clash between U.S. Marines and a stone-throwing crowd in Mosul in northern Iraq, The New York Times reported on its Web site. The U.S. Central Command in the Persian Gulf said it could not confirm the report.


    Casualties as of Thursday, July 24, 2003.
    US Central Command has reported the deaths of 80 American service personnel in Iraq since 1 May when President Bush declared that major combat was over. Of the dead, at least 40 were killed in combat, typically in ambushes involving rocket-propelled grenades (RPG) and sniper attacks. In the same period, UK forces lost six servicemen - all members of the Military Police who were attacked in a village about 160 kilometres (100 miles) north of Basra. See article below at the end of this page for the list of incidents up through July 24th during US occupation.

    BAGHDAD (CNN) -- Three U.S. soldiers were killed early Thursday in northern Iraq when their convoy was ambushed by small-arms fire and rocket-propelled grenades, according to the U.S. military.

    The soldiers, from the 101st Airborne Division, were traveling into the town of Qayyarah, about 40 miles (64 kilometers) south of Mosul, when they were attacked about 2:30 a.m. (6:30 p.m. EDT Wednesday), military officials said. Soldiers secured the ambush site, and found two RPGs and an AK-47 assault rifle at the site, according to U.S. Central Command. On Wednesday, two U.S. soldiers in Iraq were killed and nine wounded, in separate attacks, when their convoys hit explosive devices, according to the U.S. military.

    Nov 4, 2:23 AM EST

    U.S. Soldier Killed in Blast Near Tikrit

    Collins says the U-S cannot leave Iraq at this point. (Audio)

    BAGHDAD, Iraq (AP) -- A soldier with the 4th Infantry Division was killed and another wounded in an explosion of an makeshift bomb near Tikrit, the U.S. Central Command said Monday.

    Also, witnesses reported that a blast near a Shiite Muslim shrine in the southern city of Karbala killed at least one person.

    Meanwhile, American troops hunted for anti-aircraft missiles along Iraq's trucking routes, digging through heaps of manure, mounds of hay or piles of pomegranates Monday. Furthermore, the U.S. Army retrieved the wreckage of a downed transport helicopter, searching for clues about who knocked it from the sky the day before.

    On Tuesday, a military spokesman said that a mortar round or a rocket had struck the so-called "Green Zone" - the heavily defended area in central Baghdad that houses the U.S.-led administration. He said the blast, one several heard late Tuesday in the capital, caused no damage or casualties.

    One clue in Sunday's helicopter shootdown may lie in Ramadi, west of the crash site, where an anti-U.S. leaflet warned, just two days before the shootdown, that Iraq's insurgents would strike the Americans with "modern and advanced methods."The downing of the CH-47 Chinook, one of two carrying dozens of soldiers on their way to Baghdad airport and home leave, killed 16 Americans and wounded 20 others. It was the heaviest U.S. death toll in any single action since the invasion of Iraq last March 20.

    One victim, Ernest Bucklew, 33, had been expected to stop at his Fort Carson, Colo., home before traveling to his mother's funeral. His wife, Barbara, wept as she spoke of breaking the news to the couple's two children, 8-year-old Joshua and 4-year-old Justin.

    "My oldest one is just a little numb," she said at the Army post near Colorado Springs, Colo., shrouded in fog and a cold rain. "He understands his nana and father passed away, but he hasn't talked about it. The youngest one just doesn't understand. He doesn't understand the concept of death right now."

    Sixteen of the injured were flown by U.S. Air Force C-17 transport Monday to Ramstein Air Base in Germany and treated at the U.S. military's Landstuhl Regional Medical Center. Nine were admitted to the intensive care unit, including five in serious condition, said hospital spokeswoman Marie Shaw.

    "They are being evaluated and surgeries are planned throughout the day," she said.

    Villagers who saw the helicopter downing south of Fallujah, 35 miles west of Baghdad, said it was struck from behind by one or two missiles apparently fired from a date palm grove in the area, deep in the Sunni Muslim heartland that has produced the most violent opposition to the U.S. occupation of Iraq.

    CBS Evening News quoted one wounded survivor at a U.S. military hospital in Baghdad shortly after the crash. Cpl. David Tennant said the missile hit the back of the Chinook, and the helicopter caught fire before it went down.

    "Everybody was just laid out everywhere, and they were trying to search for most of the people that were left within the rubble. There was a lot of people screaming," Tennant told CBS. "I just remember waking up in the middle of the rubble, trying to escape, trying to get out of the burning metal."

    Hundreds of portable, shoulder-fired missiles are unaccounted for in Iraq, potential threats to a U.S. occupation army that relies heavily on the slow, low-flying CH-47 Chinook craft for troop transport. The U.S. command has offered Iraqis $500 apiece for each portable missile turned in but has refused to say how many have been surrendered.

    In one search operation Monday, U.S. military police stretched out razor wire and set up checkpoints along the main artery running north from Baghdad, now dubbed "Highway 1," to look for weapons, including anti-aircraft missiles.

    "We have had indication that more of stuff like this (missiles) are moving out there," said Lt. Col. Dave Poirier, commander of the 720th Military Police Battalion. "People know they are taking a big chance in transporting weapons ... and for some of these large weapons systems, you'd have to have a truck to transport it."

    Spc. Andrew Fifield of San Antonio jumped on top of a truck transporting pomegranates and picked through the fruit carefully.

    As he dug through dried manure atop a second truck, he motioned to Iraqi policemen to join him. None did.

    "A lot of them were not police as we'd know police back home to be," Poirier said. "Some of them were never policemen before this."

    Few details were available about the attack that killed the 4th Infantry Division solider. Central Command said in a news release that the attack happened at 2:40 p.m. Monday and that the soldier's name was being withheld upending family notification.

    It said the wounded soldier was in stable condition.

    The explosion in Karbala, 65 miles south of Baghdad, apparently was caused by a bomb planted in a parked car on a busy street less than 100 yards from the gold-domed Imam Hussein shrine, said Mohammed Abu Jaffar al-Assadi, a Shiite cleric. Other witnesses said it might have been concealed in a bag left outside a hotel.

    In addition to at least one dead, it was believed 12 people were wounded, al-Assadi said. It was not immediately possible to get confirmation.

    As a result of Sunday's shootdown, the U.S. command may have to re-evaluate the routes and flying tactics of its transport helicopters and planes over Iraq.

    The SA-7 Strela portable missiles known to have been in Iraqi hands, weapons that home in on the engine heat of an aircraft, can be fired to an altitude of 14,000 feet, easily covering the usual cruising altitude of a heavily laden Chinook.

    Another shoulder-fired missile in the old Iraqi army's inventory, the advanced SA-18 Iglas, is equipped with special filters to defeat flares and other countermeasures deployed by U.S. aircraft.

    The apparent successful use of such a weapon in Sunday's attack is a sign of the increasing sophistication of Iraq's elusive anti-U.S. resistance, whose attacks have intensified in recent weeks.

    At the site Monday, a giant crane lifted pieces of wreckage onto a truck, as soldiers sealed off the immediate area. Villager Jamal Abed, 22, said U.S. troops came to his house Monday morning and told him, through an interpreter, that "if American forces were subjected to fire, they will open fire on every house in the area."

    In other developments:

    -A neighborhood council chairman in west Baghdad, Mustafa Zaidan al-Khaleefa, 47, was fatally shot from a passing car late Sunday. Numerous Iraqi local and national officials cooperating with the occupation have been targeted for assassination.

    -In the southern city of Basra, some 1,500 members of a new Iraqi security guard force protested outside the mayor's office, seeking a higher bonus for Ramadan, the Muslim holy month.


    Associated Press writers Katarina Kratovac in Tikrit, Bassem Mroue at the crash site, and Robert Weller in Fort Carson, Colo., contributed to this report.

    U.S. helicopter shot down in Iraq: 16 U.S. soldiers killed and 20 wounded

    Monday, November 03, 2003

    By Tini Tran, The Associated Press

    FALLUJAH, Iraq -- Targeting Americans with new audacity, insurgents hiding in a date palm grove shot down a Chinook helicopter carrying dozens of soldiers heading for home leave yesterday, killing 16 and wounding 20 in the deadliest strike against U.S. forces since they invaded Iraq in March.

    Witnesses said the attackers used missiles -- a sign of the increasing sophistication of Iraq's elusive anti-U.S. fighters.

    Three other Americans were killed in separate attacks yesterday, including one 1st Armored Division soldier in Baghdad and two U.S. civilians working for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in Fallujah. All three were victims of roadside bombs, the military said.

    Anja Niedringhaus/Associated Press
    A U.S. Army helicopter flies near the area after a U.S. Chinook helicopter, right, believed to be carrying dozens of soldiers to leaves abroad was struck by a missile yesterday and crashed west of Baghdad, near Fallujah.

    Sunday's death toll was the highest for American troops since March 23 -- the first week of the invasion that ousted Saddam Hussein -- and the attack represented a major escalation in the campaign to drive the U.S.-led coalition out of the country.

    The giant helicopter was ferrying the soldiers on their way for leave outside Iraq when two missiles streaked into the sky and slammed into the rear of the aircraft, witnesses told The Associated Press. It crashed in flames in farmers' fields west of Baghdad.

    "It's clearly a tragic day for America," Defense Secretary Donald H. Rumsfeld said in Washington. "In a long, hard war, we're going to have tragic days. But they're necessary. They're part of a war that's difficult and complicated."

    Like past attacks on U.S. forces and a string of suicide bombings that killed dozens in Baghdad the past week, U.S. coalition officials blamed either Saddam loyalists or foreign fighters for the strike outside Fallujah, a center of Sunni Muslim resistance to the U.S. occupation.

    President Bush, who was at his Texas ranch yesterday, refused to personally comment on the attacks. He spent the day out of public view -- a "down" day between campaign appearances Saturday and today.

    L. Paul Bremer, the head of the occupation in Iraq, repeated demands that Syria and Iran prevent fighters from crossing their borders into Iraq.

    "They could do a much better job of helping us seal that border and keeping terrorist out of Iraq," he told CNN. The "enemies of freedom" in Iraq "are using more sophisticated techniques to attack our forces."

    U.S. officials have been warning of the danger of shoulder-fired missiles, thousands of which are now scattered from Saddam's arsenals, and such missiles are believed to have downed two U.S. copters since May 1. Those two crashes -- of smaller helicopters -- wounded only one American.

    The loaded-down Chinook was a dramatic new target. The insurgents have been steadily advancing in their weaponry, first using homemade roadside bombs, then rocket-fired grenades in ambushes on American patrols, and vehicles stuffed with explosives and detonated by suicide attackers.

    In the fields south of Fallujah, some villagers proudly showed off blackened pieces of the Chinook's wreckage to arriving reporters.

    Though a few villagers tried to help, many celebrated word of the helicopter downing, as well as a fresh attack on U.S. soldiers in Fallujah itself. Two American civilians working under contract for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers were killed and one was injured in the explosion of a roadside bomb, the military said.

    "This was a new lesson from the resistance, a lesson to the greedy aggressors," one Fallujah resident, who would not give his name, said of the helicopter downing. "They'll never be safe until they get out of our country," he said of the Americans.

    The downed copter was one of two Chinooks flying out in formation from an air base in Habbaniyah, about 10 miles from the crash site, carrying troops to Baghdad on route for rest and recreation -- R&R.

    The missiles semed to have been fired from a palm grove about 500 yards away, Thaer Ali, 21, said. At least one hit the Chinook, which came down in a field in the farming village of Hasai, a few miles south of Fallujah, witnesses said.

    The missiles flashed toward the helicopter from the rear, as usual with heat-seeking ground-fired missiles. The most common model in the former Iraqi army inventory was the Russian-made SA-7, also known as Strelas.

    Hours later, thick smoke rose from the blackened, smoldering hulk as U.S. soldiers swarmed over the crash site, evacuating the injured, retrieving evidence and cordoning off the area.

    Yassin Mohamed said he heard the explosion and ran out of his house, a half-mile away.

    "I saw the helicopter burning. I ran toward it because I wanted to help put out the fire, but couldn't get near because of American soldiers," he said.

    The U.S. military would not confirm that the aircraft was struck by a missile, but a spokesman, Col. William Darley, said witnesses reported seeing "missile trails."

    In Baghdad, Darley said the CH-47 helicopter belonged to the 12th Aviation Brigade, a Germany-based unit that supports the 82nd Airborne Division Task Force operating west of Baghdad.

    The two Chinooks were carrying a total of more than 50 passengers to the U.S. base at Baghdad International Airport, from which they were to fly out on leave, U.S. officials said. Darley said some of the casualties were from medical units, but officials did not provide a breakdown of their units.

    A spokesman at Fort Carson, Colo., said the Chinooks were carrying soldiers from Fort Carson; Fort Sill, Okla.; Fort Campbell, Ky.; and Fort Hood, Texas.

    Lt. Col. Thomas Budzyna said some Fort Carson troops were among the injured but he did not know the units or bases of the other casualties.

    "Many were looking forward to a break in the action," Budzyna said. "Unfortunately, they faced something else."

    The Pentagon announced Friday it was expanding the rest and recreation leave program for troops in Iraq. As of yesterday, it said, the number of soldiers departing daily to the United States via a transit facility in neighboring Kuwait would be increased from 280 to 480.

    Fallujah lies in the so-called "Sunni Triangle," a region north and west of Baghdad were most attacks on American forces have taken place. The downing and the soldier's death in Baghdad brought to at least 139 the number of American soldiers killed by hostile fire since President Bush declared an end to major combat on May 1.

    Around 377 U.S. service members have died since the beginning of military operations in Iraq.

    The death toll yesterday surpasses one of the deadliest single attacks during the Iraq war: the March 23 ambush of the 507th Maintenance Company, in which 11 soldiers were killed, nine were wounded and seven captured, including Pfc. Jessica Lynch. A total of 28 Americans around Iraq -- including the casualties from the ambush -- died on that day, the deadliest for U.S. troops during the Iraq war.

    Meanwhile, in Abu Ghraib on Baghdad's western edge, U.S. troops clashed with townspeople yesterday. Local Iraqis said U.S. troops arrived in the morning and ordered people to disperse from the marketplace. Someone then tossed a grenade at the Americans, who opened fire, witnesses said.

    The newest deaths capped a week of extraordinary carnage in and around Baghdad. On Oct. 26, a rocket slammed into a hotel housing hundreds of coalition staffers, killing one and injuring 15.

    A day later, four coordinated suicide bombings in Baghdad killed three dozen people and wounded more than 200. Daily attacks against U.S. forces have increased in the last three weeks from an average of the mid-20s to 33.

    Soldier dies while heading home for mother's funeral

    Among 16 killed by missile attack on U.S. helicopter

    Monday, November 03, 2003

    By Ann Belser, Pittsburgh Post-Gazette Staff Writer

    Sgt. Ernest Bucklew, 33, was coming home from Iraq on an emergency leave to attend the funeral of his mother when his helicopter was shot from the sky.

    In three days, Donald Bucklew, of Darlington Township, lost his wife and his son.

    "His mother and dad prayed every night that he would come home safe," said Jack Smith, of Point Marion, Fayette County, Ernest Bucklew's uncle.

    The family tragedy started Friday afternoon. Mary Ellen Bucklew, 57, was driving home from work at a warehouse when an aneurysm in one of the arteries leading to her heart burst. Her vehicle ran into the median of the road and she died.

    Smith said Ernest Bucklew's wife, Barbara, went to the American Red Cross and put in a plea to get him home for the funeral. The couple lived in Fort Carson, Colo., with their two sons, Justin, 6, and Joshua, 4. Smith said the Army agreed to get him to Fort Carson, but that he would have to get to Pennsylvania on his own.

    The plan was that Ernest Bucklew would pick up his family and they would all come to Pennsylvania to attend the funeral.


    U.S. helicopter shot down in Iraq: 16 U.S. soldiers killed and 20 wounded


    The CH-47 Chinook he was aboard was one of two helicopters flying out in formation from an air base in Habbaniyah, Iraq, yesterday carrying troops to Baghdad on route for rest and recreation leaves.

    In flight, two missiles streaked into the sky from a ground position and slammed into the rear of the helicopter, witnesses told The Associated Press. It crashed in flames in farmers' fields west of Baghdad, killing 16 and wounding 20 in the deadliest strike against U.S. forces since they invaded Iraq in March.

    "Two deaths in three days is hard. I'm scared to death for my brother-in-law," Smith said.

    The family is close-knit, holding yearly reunions. One of Ernest Bucklew's cousins stayed with Barbara Bucklew last night. She and her children will return to Pennsylvania today.

    Bucklew had recently e-mailed his uncle that the military was offering soldiers 10 days off in the States, but that he did not plan to come home because it would be harder for his children to see him for 10 days and then say goodbye again than to not see him at all, Smith said.

    Ernest Bucklew grew up in Geneva, Fayette County, the son of a coal miner. Bucklew was about 13 when his family moved to Morgantown, W.Va., and he graduated from high school there.

    After high school, Bucklew's family moved to Beaver County, where Donald Bucklew is an electrician for Duquesne Light Co.

    Ernest Bucklew joined the National Guard after high school. About five years ago, his uncle said, he joined the Army. He and his wife moved to Georgia for two years, then to Colorado.

    Yesterday afternoon Smith got the call from Bucklew's sister, Dawn Marie DeFelice, that his nephew had died when the helicopter was shot down.

    "I can't find any reason for both of them going like this," he said.

    Funeral arrangements were incomplete last night.

    Families grieve loss of loved ones in crash

    Monday, November 3, 2003 Posted: 6:50 PM EST (2350 GMT)

    (AP) -- Karina Lau was hoping to surprise her family in California with a two-week furlough from Iraq. Ernest Bucklew was headed home for his mother's funeral in Pennsylvania.

    Around the nation, families of the 16 U.S. soldiers killed in a weekend helicopter attack in Iraq had been looking forward to a few precious hours with their loved ones. Instead, the families were grieving Monday.

    Many of the victims had been headed home for R&R or emergency leave when they were killed.

    Bucklew, 33, had been expected to stop at his Fort Carson, Colorado, home before traveling to the funeral. His wife, Barbara, wept as she spoke of breaking the news to the couple's two children, 8-year-old Joshua and 4-year-old Justin.

    "My oldest one is just a little numb," she said at the Army post near Colorado Springs, shrouded in fog and a cold rain. "He understands his nana and father passed away, but he hasn't talked about it. The youngest one just doesn't understand. He doesn't understand the concept of death right now."

    The CH-47 Chinook helicopter was taking soldiers to the U.S. base at Baghdad International Airport on Sunday so they could fly out for two weeks' leave. The attack also left 20 soldiers wounded.

    Among the dead was helicopter pilot, 30-year-old 1st Lt. Brian Slavenas of Genoa, Illinois. Military service was a natural fit for the 6-foot-5 former Army paratrooper who was serving in the Illinois National Guard.

    "I just feel like the whole world was cheated because he was just the wrong person for the good of the world to be killed," said his brother Marcus Slavenas, who served in Operation Desert Storm.

    Ronald Slavenas said his son was a "gentle giant" who did not like violence. He said Brian Slavenas loved checking out the sights as he flew dignitaries, soldiers, prisoners and equipment around Iraq.

    "He described to me seeing all of those places from the air, pointing out archaeological sites like Babylon," Ronald Slavenas said. "From the air, for him, it was like sightseeing."

    Lau, a 20-year-old Army private trained at Fort Hood, Texas, dreamed of returning to school and someday setting up her own music shop, relatives said. She was planning to visit family in Livingston, California.

    "She had just e-mailed my wife just two hours before she got on the helicopter," said Noel Rivera, Lau's brother-in-law.

    The attack was an especially tragic blow at Fort Carson, which has sent 12,000 troops to Iraqits largest deployment since World War II. In all, 25 soldiers from the post have died in Iraqfour of them in Sunday's crash.

    Another of the hardest-hit posts was Fort Sill, Oklahoma. Six soldiers based there were killed and six were injured in Sunday's attack.

    "When my husband gets here, I just want to hug and kiss him and never let him go," said Amy Leyenbecker, who is married to a soldier and was at the Bucklew home trying to provide comfort.

    Bucklew's family was planning two funeralsone for him and another for his mother, who died Friday of a burst aneurysm at age 57.

    "They say there's a reason for everything, but I just can't find a reason for this," said Bucklew's uncle, Jack Smith of Point Marion, Pennsylvania. "This country shouldn't be starting wars, we should be defending ourselves and others. I think all these boys should be sent home."

    Bucklew, the son of a coal miner, grew up in Pennsylvania and West Virginia and joined the National Guard. He met his wife in 1991, when both were in the Army Reserves.

    Ernest Bucklew, his wife Barbara, and their sons Justin and Joshua appear in a 2001 holiday card photo. She said once she saw the 5-foot-3 Bucklew, with his brown eyes and brown hair, she knew she wanted to spend her life with him. "Even on your worst day, he knew how to make you laugh," she said. "That had to be his best quality."

    Ernie, as he was known, had been in the Army since 1999. In one of the last e-mails sent to his wife, he reminisced about times with his mother, Mary, when he was a child.

    "He said he couldn't sleep. He was thinking about her," Barbara Bucklew said. "He couldn't wait to be home

    Chinook Attack

    The Bloodiest Day in Iraq for Americans



    In the deadliest single attack on the United States army since it invaded Iraq, guerrillas shot down a Chinook helicopter with a missile yesterday killing 15 and wounding 21 American servicemen. The US Defence Secretary, Donald Rumsfeld, called the incident a national tragedy for Americans.

    The Chinook, which came down in a field near Fallujah, west of Baghdad, was one of two 84-foot long transport helicopters attacked shortly after they took off from Habbaniyah air base at about 9am yesterday on a routine flight. They were ferrying more than 50 soldiers on a rest break from the 82nd Airborne Division to a military base at Baghdad International airport. As the helicopters passed over the village of Buisa, set in rich farmland filled with cattle and crops, guerrillas hidden in a date grove fired two shoulder-launched ground-to-air missiles, probably from a Russian heat-seeking SA-7 known as the Strella. There are many of them in Iraq and they were formerly used by the Iraqi army.

    Daoud Suleiman, a farmer working among the date palms said: "I saw two helicopters pass overhead when two missiles were fired at them. One missed and the other hit a helicopter at the rear end and flames starting coming out of it before it crashed into a field. I saw the helicopter try to stay in the air after it was hit but then it got close to the ground and I saw some soldiers jump out."

    He said the helicopter that was not hit fired a flare to divert the missile. Minutes after the attack, American Black Hawk helicopters swarmed over the scene to rush survivors to hospital while soldiers secured the site, ordering journalists to leave and confiscating film.

    Villagers and local farmers showed their delight by waving pieces of the smoking wreckage. The bloodiest single incident for American forces since the beginning of the war, and the worst day of casualties since the official end of the combat phase of the war as declared by President George Bush six months ago, eclipsed efforts by the White House to counter the impression that Iraq is becoming a quagmire for America. "Clearly it is a tragic day," Mr Rumsfeld said.

    Yesterday's attack capped an eight-day surge in violence in which 27 American soldiers have died. Fallujah, a market town on the road to Jordan, is in the Sunni Muslim heartland, an area in which there have been more attacks on troops than anywhere else in Iraq. "Fallujah will always be a cemetery for the Americans," reads a slogan on a wall in the main street not far from the mayor's office, part of which was set on fire over the weekend.

    In a separate action by guerrillas in Fallujah yesterday, two American civilian contractors died. The remains of their truck, which had been blown up by a rocket or bomb, could be seen near a bridge over the Euphrates. Eye witnesses said that they saw four armed Americans inside being taken away on stretchers. And a soldier was also killed by a roadside bomb in Baghdad. Mr Rumsfeld said: "In a long hard war, we are going to have tragic days. But they are necessary. They are part of a war that is difficult and complicated." He insisted that the US would not be deterred and would win the war in Iraq.

    But yesterday's attack presents the American forces with an immediate security crisis. They are heavily dependent on road transport and helicopters. If Strellas start to be used regularly by guerrillas--and American officials have warned that there are plenty unaccounted for--this will force helicopters to fly higher and thus become less effective. American vehicles have already proved vulnerable to roadside bombs, which have accounted for many of the soldiers killed and wounded. A military helicopter was also brought down by an rocket-propelled grenade near Tikrit last week.

    Mr Rumsfeld said that he saw no need to raise the number of troops, now at about 130,000, which has come down from 150,000. But the Republican chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, Richard Lugar, and Senator Joseph Biden, the panel's top Democrat, said the number might have to be increased.


    Losses in Iraq crash a blow to families

    Tuesday, November 4, 2003 Posted: 7:43 PM EST (0043 GMT)

    (CNN) -- Families of some of the 15 U.S. soldiers killed in this week's helicopter crash in Iraq expressed their grief Tuesday as well as concern over the U.S. mission in the country.

    The soldiers were killed and 27 others wounded when the CH-47 Chinook transport helicopter went down Sunday near Fallujah, a hotbed of U.S. resistance, in a suspected missile strike. Initial reports indicated 16 had died. (Gallery: Chinook fatalities)

    The crash fatalities along with the deaths of another soldier and two civilians made Sunday the deadliest day for Americans in Iraq since President Bush declared an end to major combat on May 1.

    "I'm saddened because I know a family hurts, and there's a deep pain in somebody's heart," Bush said Tuesday as he inspected damage from wildfires in Southern California.

    "But I do want to remind the loved ones that their sons and daughters, or the sons in this case, died for a cause greater than themselves and a noble cause, which is the security of the United States."

    While some family members said the United States must stay the course in Iraq, others cited misgivings about the U.S. presence as casualties mount.

    "If we pull out without stabilizing the situation, we'll have pandemonium. It would be a revolution," said Ronald Slavenas, whose son Brian, 30, of Genoa, Illinois, was piloting the chopper.

    "We have to keep a stabilizing cap over it and hopefully get more help from other nations and other sources."

    Marcus Slavenas, one of Brian's brothers, was more critical: "I don't believe we need to be there. I wish the Iraqis well and I hope they can figure out their problems, but I don't want this to happen at the expense of our boys."

    The widow of Staff Sgt. Daniel Bader, 28, of York, Nebraska, said she was crushed that her husband would not see their daughter grow up.

    "Now he's not going to know what she's going to look like, what she's going to be or anything because she was just barely 6 months old when he left," Tiffany Bader said.

    "I just want the world to know that my husband was a great man. I just want everybody to know that he fought for his country. He was my world. I loved him with all of my heart."

    Harriet Johnson lost her son, Spc. Darius T. Jennings, 22, of Cordova, South Carolina.

    "He kept saying, 'Mama, I'm ready to come home. You don't see the stuff I see over here,' " Johnson recalled. "What he kept telling me was he was tired, he was ready to come home."

    Johnson said she wants to see an end to the U.S. occupation.

    "The people over there are telling our American leaders that they don't want us over there and they will continue to kill our American soldiers," she said.

    "They're telling our leaders this, so why aren't our leaders listening and bringing our babies home?"

    But Johnson said she's proud her son died defending his country. "I want him to be known as Darius the hero because he is my hero. He's 22 years old. He's an Army veteran, but he's a fallen soldier."

    The family of Sgt. Steven D. Conover, 21, of Wilmington, Ohio, said he also expressed misgivings before his death, especially after his best friend was killed in a roadside explosion.

    Lt. Brian Slavenas, pilot of the Chinook, is recalled by his brother Marcus and father, Ronald.
    Lt. Brian Slavenas, pilot of the Chinook, is recalled by his brother Marcus and father, Ronald.

    "He said, 'I put him in a body bag and sent him home to his wife and kids,' " recalled Mike Earley, Conover's stepfather. "He said, 'Mom, I've seen far too much. I want to come home.' "

    The helicopter was ferrying troops away for rest and recuperation at the time it went down. That timing -- the sudden swing from excitement to grief -- was agonizing for some families.

    "You think he wouldn't leave you trying to come home, and that's the part that hurts so bad -- the way he went," said Rose Wilson, grandmother of Staff Sgt. Joe N. Wilson, 30, of Crystal Springs, Mississippi.

    The parents of Pfc. Karina S. Lau, 20, said they felt the same way.

    "When you have hope that she was coming home on leave, and this happens, it's a double shock," said Augustin Lau, Karina's father.

    Harriet Johnson lost her son, Spc. Darius T. Jennings, 22, in Sunday's helicopter crash.

    Harriet Johnson lost her son, Spc. Darius T. Jennings, 22, in Sunday's helicopter crash.

    In Memoriam

    List of Coalition Casualties as of November 2, 2003

    November 2:

    Staff Sgt. Daniel A. Bader, 28, Colorado Springs, Colorado. Assigned to Air Defense Artillery Battery, 1st Squadron, 3rd Armored Cavalry Regiment, Fort Carson, Colorado.

    Sgt. Steven D. Conover, 21, Wilmington, Ohio; based at Fort Sill, Oklahoma.

    Army Sgt. Ernest G. Bucklew, 33, Enon Valley, Pa., helicopter downing

    Army Pfc. Anthony D. Dagostino, 20, Waterbury, Conn., helicopter downing

    Army Pfc. Karina Lau, 20, Livingston, Calif., helicopter downing

    Army Sgt. Keelan L. Moss, 23, Houston, Texas, helicopter downing

    Army Sgt. Ross A. Pennanen, 36, Oklahoma, helicopter downing

    Spc. Brian H. Penisten, 28, of Fort Wayne, Indiana. Assigned to Air Defense Artillery Battery, 1st Squadron, 3rd Armored Cavalry Regiment, Fort Carson, Colorado.

    Sgt. Joel Perez, 25, of Rio Grande, Puerto Rico. Assigned to 2nd Battalion, 5th Field Artillery Regiment, Fort Sill, Oklahoma.

    Illinois National Guard 1st Lt. Brian Slavenas, 30, Genoa, Ill., helicopter downing

    Chief Warrant Officer Bruce A. Smith, 41, West Liberty, Iowa. Assigned to Detachment 1, Company F, 106th Aviation Battalion, Army National Guard, Davenport, Iowa.

    Army Staff Sgt. Paul A. Velazquez, 29, San Diego, Calif., helicopter downing

    Spc. Frances M. Vega, 20, Fort Buchanan, Puerto Rico, helicopter downing

    Army Staff Sgt. Joe N. Wilson, 30, Mississippi, helicopter downing


    October 28:

    Army Pvt. Algernon Adams, 36, Aiken, S.C., non-combat

    Army Spc. Isaac Campoy, 21, Douglas, Ariz., tank hit land mine

    Army Sgt. Michael Paul Barrera, 26, Von Ormy, Texas, tank hit land mine

    Spc. Darius T. Jennings, 22, Cordova, South Carolina. Assigned to 2nd Squadron, 3rd Armored Cavalry Regiment, Fort Carson, Colorado.

    No photos available:

    Sgt. Keelan L. Moss, 23, Houston, Texas. Assigned to 2nd Battalion, 5th Field Artillery Regiment, Fort Sill, Oklahoma.

    Spc. Frances M. Vega, 20, Fort Buchanan, Puerto Rico. Assigned to 151st Adjutant General Postal Detachment 3, Fort Hood, Texas.

    Staff Sgt. Joe N. Wilson, 30, Crystal Springs, Mississippi. Assigned to 2nd Battalion, 5th Field Artillery Regiment, Fort Sill, Oklahoma.

    October 27:

    Army Sgt. Aubrey D. Bell, 33, Tuskegee, Ala., small arms fire

    Army Pvt. Jonathan I. Falaniko, 20, Pago Pago, American Samoa, car bomb


    October 26:

    Army Pfc. Steven Acosta, 19, Calexico, Calif., non-combat gunshot wound

    Army Pfc. Rachel K. Bosveld, 19, Waupun, Wis., mortar attack

    Army Lt. Col. Charles H. Buehring, 40, Winter Springs, Fla., rocket-propelled grenade attack on the Al-Rasheed Hotel

    Army Pvt. Joseph R. Guerrera, 20, Dunn, N.C., roadside explosion

    Army Staff Sgt. Jamie L. Huggins, 26, Hume, Mo., roadside explosion


    October 24:

    Army Spc. Artimus D. Brassfield, 22, Flint, Mich., mortar attack

    Army Sgt. Michael S. Hancock, 29, Yreka, Calif., shooting

    Army Spc. Jose L. Mora, 26, Bell Gardens, Calif., mortar attack


    October 23:

    Army Capt. John R. Teal, 31, Mechanicsville, Va., explosive device


    October 22:

    Army Pfc. Paul J. Bueche, 19, Daphne, Ala., accidental


    October 21:

    Army Pvt. Jason M. Ward, 25, Tulsa, Okla., non-combat

    Army Spc. John P. Johnson, 24, Houston, Texas, non-combat


    October 20:

    Army Staff Sgt Paul J. Johnson, 29, Calumet, Mich., roadside explosion


    October 18:

    Army 1st Lt. David R. Bernstein, 24, Phoenixville, Pa., ambush

    Army Pvt. John Hart, 20, Bedford, Mass., ambush


    October 17:

    Army Spc. Michael L. Williams, 46, Buffalo, N.Y., roadside explosion


    October 16:

    Army Staff Sgt. Joseph P. Bellavia, 28, Wakefield, Mass., combat

    Army Cpl. Sean R. Grilley, 24, San Bernardino, Calif., combat

    Army Lt. Col. Kim S. Orlando, 43, Tennessee, combat


    October 13:

    Army Pfc. Jose Casanova, 23, El Monte, Calif., vehicle accident

    Army Pvt. Benjamin L. Freeman, 19, Valdosta, Ga., drowning

    Army Spc. Douglas J. Weismantle, 28, Pittsburgh, Pa., vehicle accident

    Army Spc. Donald L. Wheeler, 22; Concord, Mich., rocket-propelled grenade attack

    Army Pfc. Stephen E. Wyatt, 19; Kilgore, Texas, ambush


    October 12:

    Army Spc. James Powell, 26, Mark Center, Ohio, anti-tank mine


    October 9:

    Army Spc. Joseph C. Norquist, 26, San Antonio, Texas, hostile fire

    Army Pvt. Sean A. Silva, 23, Roseville, Calif., ambush

    Army Staff Sgt. Christopher W. Swisher, 26, Lincoln, Neb., ambush


    October 6:

    Army Spc. Spencer T. Karol, 20; Woodruff, Ariz., roadside explosion

    Army Pfc. Kerry D. Scott, 21, Mount Vernon, Wash., roadside explosion

    Army 2nd Lt. Richard Torres, 25, Clarksville, Tenn., roadside explosion


    October 4:

    Army Spc. James H. Pirtle, 27, La Mesa, N.M., rocket-propelled grenade attack


    October 3:

    Army Pfc. Charles M. Sims, 18, Miami, Fla., drowning


    October 1:

    Army Command Sgt. Maj. James D. Blankenbecler, 40, Alexandria, Va., roadside bombing/rocket-propelled grenade attack

    Army Pfc. Analaura Esparaza Gutierrez, 21, Houston, Texas, roadside bombing/rocket-propelled grenade attack

    Army Spc. Simeon Hunte, Essex, N.J., shot while on patrol


    September 30:

    Army Spc. Dustin K. McGaugh, 20, Derby, Kan., non-combat gunshot wound


    September 29:

    Army Sgt. Andrew Joseph Baddick, 26, Jim Thorpe, Pa., drowning

    Army Staff Sgt. Christopher E. Cutchall, 30, McConnellsburg, Pa., improvised explosive device

    Army Pfc. Kristian E. Parker, 23, Slidell, La., non-combat

    Army Sgt. Darrin K. Potter, 24, Louisville, Ky., vehicle accident


    September 25:

    Army Spc. Kyle G. Thomas, 23, Topeka, Kan., improvised explosive device

    Army Capt. Robert L. Lucero, 34, Casper, Wyo., improvised explosive device

    Army Sgt. 1st Class Robert E. Rooney, 43; Nashua, N.H., accident


    September 24:

    Army Spc. Michael Andrade, 28, Bristol, R.I., vehicle accident


    September 22:

    Army Spc. Paul J. Sturino, 21, Rice Lake, Wis., non-combat gunshot wound


    September 20:

    Army soldier Lunsford Brown, II, 27, Henderson, N.C., mortar attack

    Army Sgt. David Travis Friedrich, 26, New Haven, Conn., mortar attack

    Army Staff Sgt. Frederick L. Miller, Jr., 27, Hagerstown, Ind., roadside explosion


    September 18:

    Army Spc. Richard Arriaga, 20, Ganado, Texas, combat

    Army Capt. Brian Faunce, 23, Philadelphia, Pa., accident

    Army Sgt. Anthony O. Thompson, 26, Orangeburg, S.C., combat

    Army Spc. James C. Wright, 27, Delhi Township, Ohio, combat


    September 15:

    Army Staff Sgt. Kevin C. Kimmerly, 31, North Creek, N.Y., rocket-propelled grenade attack

    Army Spc. Alyssa R. Peterson, 27, Flagstaff, Ariz., non-combat weapons discharge


    September 14:

    Army Sgt. Trevor A. Blumberg, 22, Canton, Mich., roadside explosion


    September 12:

    Army Sgt. 1st Class William M. Bennett, 35, Seymour, Tenn., combat

    Army Master Sgt. Kevin Morehead, 33, Benton, Ark., combat


    September 11:

    Army Sgt. Henry Ybarra, III, 32, Austin, Texas, non-combat injuries


    September 10:

    Army Staff Sgt. Joseph E. Robsky Jr., 31, Elizaville, N.Y., bomb disposal accident


    September 9:

    Army Spc. Ryan G. Carlock, 25, Macomb, Ill., combat


    September 7:

    Army Spc. Jarrett B. Thompson, 27, Dover, Del., vehicle accident


    September 4:

    Air Force Tech. Sgt. Bruce E. Brown, 32, Coatopa, Ala., accident


    September 2:

    Pfc. Christopher A. Sisson, 20, of Oak Park, Ill., helicopter accident


    September 1:

    Army Staff Sgt. Joseph Camara, 40, New Bedford, Mass., landmine explosion

    Army Sgt. Charles T. Caldwell, 38, North Providence, R.I., landmine explosion

    Army Staff Sgt. Cameron B. Sarno, 43, Waipahu, Hawaii, road accident ---

    August 30:

    Sgt. Sean K. Cataudella, 28, Tucson, Ariz., vehicle accident


    August 29:

    Army Staff Sgt. Mark A. Lawton, 41, Hayden, Colo., rocket-propelled grenade attack


    August 27:

    Army Sgt. Gregory A. Belanger, 24, Narragansett, R.I., roadside explosion

    Army Spc. Rafael L. Navea, 34, Pittsburgh, Pa., roadside explosion

    Army Lt. Col. Anthony L. Sherman, 43, Pottstown, Pa., non-combat


    August 26:

    Army Spc. Darryl T. Dent, 21, Washington D.C., roadside explosion


    August 25:

    Army Spc. Ronald D. Allen Jr., 22, Mitchell, Ind., struck by motorist

    Army Pfc. Pablo Manzano, 19, Heber, Calif., non-combat


    August 23:

    Army Pfc. Vorn J. Mack, 19, Orangeburg, S.C., drowning

    Army Spc. Stephen M. Scott, 21, Lawton, Okla., non-combat


    August 21:

    Army Pfc. Michael S. Adams, 20, Spartanburg, S.C., non-combat injuries

    Navy Lt. Kylan A. Jones-Huffman, 31, College Park, Md., shot by unidentified gunman


    August 20:

    Army Staff Sgt. Bobby C. Franklin, 38, Mineral Bluff, Ga., explosion

    Army Spc. Kenneth W. Harris, Jr., 23, Charlotte, Tenn., vehicle accident


    August 18:

    Army Spc. Eric R. Hull, 23, Uniontown, Pa., roadside explosion


    August 17:

    Army Spc. Craig S. Ivory, 26, Port Matilda, Pa., non-combat


    August 14:

    Army Pfc. David Kirchhoff, 31, Anamosa, Iowa, heatstroke


    August 13:

    Army Sgt. Steven W. White, 29, Lawton, Okla., anti-tank mine


    August 12:

    Army Pfc. Timothy R. Brown, Jr., 21, Conway, Pa., roadside explosion

    Army Staff Sgt. Richard S. Eaton, Jr., 37, Guilford, Conn., illness

    Army Pfc. Daniel R. Parker, 18, Lake Elsinore, Calif., vehicle accident

    Army Sgt. Taft V. Williams, 29, New Orleans, La., roadside explosion


    August 10:

    Army Staff Sgt. David S. Perry, 36, Bakersfield, Calif., package bomb


    August 9:

    Army Sgt. Floyd G. Knighten, Jr., 55, Olla, La., non-combat related

    Army Spc. Levi B. Kinchen, 21, Tickfaw, La., non-combat related


    August 8:

    Army Pvt. Matthew D. Bush, 20, East Alton, Ill., non-combat related

    Army Pfc. Brandon Ramsey, 21, Calumet City, Ill., vehicle accident


    August 7:

    Army Pfc. Duane E. Longstreth, 19, Tacoma, Wash., non-combat related


    August 6:

    Army Spc. Zeferino E. Colunga, 20, Bellville, Texas, illness

    Army Pvt. Kyle C. Gilbert, 20, Brattleboro, Vt., combat

    Army Sgt. Brian R. Hellerman, 35, Freeport, Minn., combat

    Army Sgt. Leonard D. Simmons, 33, New Bern, N.C., non-combat


    August 5:

    Army Spc. Farao K. Letufuga, 20, Pago Pago, American Samoa, accident

    Army Staff Sgt. David L. Loyd, 44, Johnson, Tenn., illness


    August 1:

    Army Spc. Justin W. Hebert, 20, Arlington, Wash., rocket-propelled grenade attack


    July 31:

    Army Pvt. Michael J. Deutsch, 21, Dubuque, Iowa, vehicle hit by explosive

    Army Spc. James I. Lambert, III, 22, Raleigh, N.C., non-combat shooting


    July 30:

    Army 1st. Lt. Leif E. Nott, 24, Cheyenne, Wyo., combat


    July 28:

    Army Sgt. Nathaniel Hart, Jr., 29, Valdosta, Ga., vehicle accident

    Army Spc. William J. Maher, III, 35, Yardley, Pa., roadside explosion


    July 27:

    Army Sgt. Heath A. McMillin, 29, Canandaigua, N.Y., combat


    July 26:

    Army Spc. Jonathan P. Barnes, 21, Anderson, Mo., grenade attack

    Army Pfc. Jonathan M. Cheatham, 19, Camden, Ark., rocket propelled grenade attack

    Army Sgt. Daniel K. Methvin, 22, Belton, Texas, grenade attack

    Army Pfc. Wilfredo Perez, Jr., 24, Norwalk, Conn., grenade attack


    July 24:

    Army Cpl. Evan Asa Ashcraft, 24, West Hills, Calif., combat

    Army Pfc. Raheen Tyson Heighter, 22, Bay Shore, N.Y., combat

    Army Staff Sgt. Hector R. Perez, 40, Corpus Christi, Texas, combat

    Army Sgt. Juan M. Serrano, 31, Manati, Puerto Rico, accident


    July 23:

    Army Capt. Joshua T. Byers, 29, Sparks, Nev., roadside explosion

    Army Spc. Brett T. Christian, 27, North Royalton, Ohio, rocket-propelled grenade attack


    July 22:

    Army Spc. Jon P. Fettig, 30, Dickinson, N.D., rocket-propelled grenade attack


    July 21:

    Army Cpl. Mark A. Bibby, 25, Watha, N.C., roadside explosion


    July 20:

    Army Sgt. Justin W. Garvey, 23, Townsend, Mass., rocket-propelled grenade attack

    Army Sgt. Jason D. Jordan, 24, Elba, Ala., rocket-propelled grenade attack

    Army Sgt. 1st Class Christopher R. Willoughby, Phenix City, Ala., vehicle accident


    July 19:

    Army 2nd Lt. Jonathan D. Rozier, 25, Katy, Texas, combat


    July 18:

    Army Spc. Joel L. Bertoldie, 20, Independence, Mo., roadside explosion


    July 17:

    Navy Petty Officer 3rd Class David J. Moreno, 26, Gering, Neb., non-hostile gunshot wound

    Army Sgt. Mason Douglas Whetstone, 30, Utah, non-combat injuries


    July 16:

    Army Spc. Ramon Reyes Torres, 29, Caguas, Puerto Rico, truck bomb


    July 15:

    Marine Lance Cpl. Cory Ryan Geurin, 18, Santee, Calif., accident


    July 14:

    Army Sgt. Michael T Crockett, 27, Soperton, Ga., combat


    July 13:

    Army Capt. Paul J. Cassidy, 36, Laingsburg, Mich., non-combat injuries

    Army Sgt. Jaror C. Puello-Coronado, 36, Pocono Summit, Pa., accident


    July 12:

    Army Spc. Joshua M. Neusche, 20, Montreal, Mo., non-combat injuries


    July 11:

    Army Spc. Christian C. Schulz, 20, Colleyville, Texas, non-combat injuries


    July 9:

    Army Sgt. 1st Class Dan H. Gabrielson, 39, Spooner, Wis., combat

    Army Sgt. Roger D. Rowe, 54, Bon Aqua, Tenn., sniper attack

    Marine Lance Cpl. Jason Andrew Tetrault, 20, Moreno Valley, Calif., vehicle accident

    Army Sgt. Melissa Valles, 26, Eagle Pass, Texas, non-combat related


    July 8:

    Army Sgt. 1st Class Craig A. Boling, 38, Elkhart, Ind., non-combat related

    Army Pvt. Robert L. McKinley, 23, Kokomo, Ind., non-combat related


    July 7:

    Army Staff Sgt. Barry Sanford, Sr., 46, Aurora, Colo., non-combat related


    July 6:

    Army Spc. Chad L. Keith, 21, Batesville, Ind., roadside explosion

    Army Sgt. David B. Parson, 30, Kannapolis, N.C., shot during raid

    Army Pfc. Jeffrey Wershow, 22, Gainesville, Fla., shot by gunman


    July 3:

    Army Pfc. Edward J. Herrgott, 20, Shakopee, Minn., shot by sniper

    Army Pfc. Corey L. Small, 20, East Berlin, Pa., non-combat related


    July 2:

    Marines Cpl. Travis J. Bradach-Nall, 24, Multnomah County, Ore., mine clearing explosion


    July 1:

    Army 1st Sgt. Christopher D. Coffin, 51, Bethlehem, Pa., vehicle accident


    June 28:

    Army Sgt. Timothy M. Conneway, 22, Enterprise, Ala., roadside bombing


    June 27:

    Army Cpl. Tomas Sotelo, Jr., 20, Houston, Texas, rocket-propelled grenade attack


    June 26:

    Army Spc. Corey A. Hubbell, 20, Urbana, Ill., non-combat

    Navy Seaman Joshua McIntosh, 22, Kingman, Ariz., non-combat

    Army Spc. Richard P. Orengo, 32, Puerto Rico, combat


    June 25:

    Army Spc. Andrew F. Chris, 25, Calif., combat

    Marine Lance Cpl. Gregory E. MacDonald, 29, Washington D.C., vehicle accident

    Army Pfc. Kevin C. Ott, 27, Columbus, Ohio, combat

    Army Sgt. 1st Class Gladimir Philippe, 37, Linden, N.J., combat


    June 24:

    Army Spc. Cedric L. Lennon, 32, West Blocton, Ala., non-combat related cause


    June 22:

    Army Spc. Orenthial J. Smith, 21, Allendale, S.C., combat


    June 19:

    Army Spc. Paul T. Nakamura, 21, Sante Fe Springs, Calif., rocket-propelled grenade attack


    June 18:

    Army Pfc. Michael R. Deuel, 21, Nemo, S.D., sniper attack

    Army Staff Sgt. William T. Latham, 29, Kingman, Ariz., combat


    June 17:

    Army Pvt. Robert L. Frantz, 19, San Antonio, Texas, grenade attack

    Army Sgt. Michael L. Tosto, 24, Apex, N.C., non-combat related cause


    June 16:

    Army Pvt. Shawn D. Pahnke, 25, Shelbyville, Ind., combat

    Army Spc. Joseph D. Suell, 24, Lufkin, Texas, non-combat related cause


    June 15:

    Marines Pfc. Ryan R. Cox, 19, Derby, Kan., non-combat weapons discharge


    June 13:

    Army Staff Sgt. Andrew R. Pokorny, 30, Naperville, Ill., vehicle accident


    June 12:

    Army Spc. John K. Klinesmith, Jr., 25, Stockbridge, Ga., drowning


    June 10:

    Army Pfc. Gavin L. Neighbor, Somerset, Ohio, combat


    June 8:

    Army Sgt. Michael E. Dooley, 23, Pulaski, Va., combat


    June 7:

    Army Sgt. Travis Lee Burkhardt, 26, Edina, Mo., combat

    Army Pvt. Jesse M. Halling, 19, Indianapolis, Ind., combat


    June 6:

    Navy Petty Officer Third Class Doyle W. Bollinger, 21, Poteau, Okla., ordnance explosion


    June 5:

    Army Pfc. Branden F. Oberleitner, 20, Worthingon, Ohio, grenade attack


    June 3:

    Army Sgt. Atanacio Haro Marin, 27, Baldwin Park, Calif., combat


    June 1:

    Marine Sgt. Jonathan W. Lambert, 28, Newsite, Miss., vehicle accident


    May 30:

    Army Spc. Michael T. Gleason, 25, Warren, Pa., vehicle accident

    Army Spc. Kyle A. Griffin, 20, Emerson, N.J., vehicle accident

    Army Spc. Zachariah W. Long, 20, Milton, Pa., vehicle accident


    May 28:

    Army Staff Sgt. Kenneth R. Bradley, 39, Utica, Miss., accident

    Army Spc. Jose A. Perez III, 22, San Diego, Texas, combat


    May 27:

    Army Sgt. Thomas F. Broomhead, 34, Canon City, Colo., combat

    Army Staff Sgt. Michael B. Quinn, 37, Tampa, Fla., combat


    May 26:

    Army Sgt. Keman L. Mitchell, 24, Hillard, Fla., accident

    Army Pvt. Kenneth A. Nalley, 19, Hamburg, Iowa, vehicle accident

    Army Staff Sgt. Brett J. Petriken, 30, Flint, Mich., vehicle accident

    Army Maj. Mathew E. Schram, 36, Brookfield, Wis., combat

    Army Pfc. Jeremiah D. Smith, 25, Odessa, Mo., vehicle accident


    May 25:

    Army Pvt. David Evans, Jr., 18, Buffalo, N.Y., munitions facility explosion


    May 21:

    Army Spc. Nathaniel A. Caldwell, 27, Omaha, Nebraska, vehicle accident


    May 19:

    Army Lt. Col. Dominic R. Baragona, 42, Niles, Ohio, vehicle accident

    Marine Capt. Andrew David La Mont, 31, Eureka, Calif., helicopter accident

    Marine Lance Cpl. Jason William Moore, 21, San Marcos, Calif., helicopter accident

    Marine 1st Lt. Timothy Louis Ryan, 30, Aurora, Ill., helicopter accident

    Marine Sgt. Kirk Allen Straseskie, 23, Beaver Dam, Wis., drowning

    Marine Staff Sgt. Aaron Dean White, 27, Shawnee, Okla., helicopter accident


    May 18:

    Marine Cpl. Douglas Jose Marencoreyes, 28, Chino, Calif., vehicle accident

    Army Spc. Rasheed Sahib, 22, New York, N.Y., non-combat weapon discharge


    May 16:

    Army Master Sgt. William L. Payne, 46, Otsego, Mich., ordnance explosion


    May 14:

    Army Spc. David T. Nutt, 32, Blackshear, Ga., vehicle accident


    May 13:

    Air Force Staff Sgt. Patrick Lee Griffin, Jr., 31, Elgin, S.C., combat

    Marine Lance Cpl. Nicholas Brian Kleiboeker, 19, Irvington, Ill., munitions explosion


    May 12:

    Marine Lance Cpl. Jakub Henryk Kowalik, 21, Schaumburg, Ill., ordnance explosion

    Marine Pfc. Jose Franci Gonzalez Rodriquez, 19, Norwalk, Calif., ordnance explosion


    May 10:

    Marine Lance Cpl. Matthew R. Smith, 20, Anderson, Ind., vehicle accident


    May 9:

    Marine Lance Cpl. Cedric E. Bruns, 22, Vancouver, Washington, vehicle accident

    Army Cpl. Richard P. Carl, 26, King Hill, Idaho, helicopter accident

    Army Chief Warrant Officer Hans N. Gukeisen, 31, Lead, S.D., helicopter accident

    Army Chief Warrant Officer Brian K. Van Dusen, 39, Columbus, Ohio, helicopter accident


    May 8:

    Army Pfc. Marlin T. Rockhold, 23, Hamilton, Ohio, combat


    May 4:

    Army Pvt. Jason L. Deibler, 20, Coeburn, Va., non-combat weapon discharge


    May 3:

    Army Sgt. Sean C. Reynolds, 25, East Lansing, Mich., non-combat weapon discharge


    May 1:

    Army Pfc. Jesse A. Givens, 34, Springfield, Mo., vehicle accident


    April 28:

    Army 1st Sgt. Joe J. Garza, 43, Robstown, Texas, vehicle accident


    April 25:

    Army Spc. Narson B. Sullivan, 21, North Brunswick, N.J., non-combat weapon discharge

    Army 1st Lt. Osbaldo Orozco, 26, Delano, Calif., vehicle accident


    April 24:

    Army Sgt. Troy D. Jenkins, 25, of Repton, Ala., cluster bomb explosion


    April 22:

    Marine Chief Warrant Officer Andrew T. Arnold, 30, of Spring, Texas., grenade launcher accident

    Army Spc. Roy R. Buckley, 24, of Portage, Ind., apparently fell from vehicle

    Marine Chief Warrant Officer Robert W. Channell Jr., 36, of Tuscaloosa, Ala., grenade launcher accident.

    Marine Lance Cpl. Alan D. Lam, 19, of Snow Camp, N.C., grenade launcher accident


    April 17:

    Army Cpl. John T. Rivero, 23, Gainesville, Fla., vehicle accident



    Casualties as of July 12, 2003. The Occupation by US, British and coalition forces of Iraq is poorly planned and open-ended with vague, generalized goals to "rebuild Iraq and establish democracy"  --whatever that means .  Iraquis live daily with chaos and our troops are being picked off  daily by snipers in a newly emerging urban guerrilla warfare.  See articles below.



    Casualties as of June 24, 2003. Go to the end of this page. The list of dead is growing longer. The War may have killed 10,000 civilians, researchers say.(See article by Simon Jeffery of The Guardian,, Friday, June 13, 2003.)  
    At least 5,000 civilians may have been killed during the invasion of
    Iraq, an independent research group has claimed. As more evidence is collated, it says, the figure could reach 10,000. Iraq Body Count (IBC), a volunteer group of British and US academics and researchers, compiled statistics on civilian casualties from media reports and estimated that between 5,000 and 7,000 civilians died in the conflict. Three completed studies suggest that between 1,700 and 2,356 civilians died in the battle for Baghdad.




    Casualties as of April 16th, 2003.    Go to the end of this page. The list of dead is growing longer. I am listing not just numbers, but the names of all those killed, missing in action, or POW's.  I do not have the names of any Iraquis -- just the images in my mind's eye of women and children, and families wounded, in shock, grieving for family members killed by U.S. bombs. ************************************************ 

    List of coalition casualties, POWs, MIAs
    as of April 16, 2003

    Copyright © 2003 AP Online

    The Associated Press

    (April 9, 2003 4:22 p.m. EDT)

    Updated on April 15th, Associated Press.

    The names of troop casualties, provided by relatives or military officials. The military totals include casualties whose names may not yet be available.


    U.S.: (Pentagon figures) 125 dead, three missing and seven captured. In some cases, families have released names before the military.
    British: 31 dead, according to the British government.


    April 14:

    Army Pvt. Johnny Brown, 21, Troy, Ala., vehicle accident

    Army Spc. Thomas Arthur Foley III, 23, of Dresden, Tenn., accidental grenade explosion

    Army Pfc. Joseph P. Mayek, 20, of Rock Springs, Wyo., accidental weapons discharge

    Marine Cpl. Armando Ariel Gonzalez, 25, of Hialeah, Fla., vehicle accident

    Army Spc. Richard A. Goward, 32, of Midland, Mich., vehicle accident

    April 13:

    Army Spc. Gil Mercado, 25, of Paterson, N.J., non-combat weapon discharge

    April 12:

    Marine Cpl. Jesus A. Gonzalez, 22, Indio, Calif., combat

    Marine Lance Cpl. David Edward Owens Jr., 20, of Winchester, Va., combat.

    April 11:

    Marine Staff Sgt. Riayan A. Tejeda, 26, New York, N.Y., combat

    April 10:

    Marine Gunnery Sgt. Jeff Bohr, 39, of San Clemente, Calif., combat

    Army Staff Sgt. Terry W. Hemingway, 39, Willingboro, N.J., combat

    April 8:

    Army Cpl. Henry L. Brown, 22, of Natchez, Miss. combat.

    Marine Pfc. Juan Garza, 20, Temperance, Mich., combat.

    Army Sgt. 1st Class John W. Marshall, 50, Los Angeles, combat

    Army Pfc. Jason M. Meyer, 23, Howell, Mich., combat

    Air Force Staff Sgt. Scott D. Sather, 29, Clio, Mich., combat

    Army Staff Sgt. Robert A. Stever, 36, Pendleton, Ore., combat

    April 7:

    Army Staff Sgt. Lincoln Hollinsaid, 27, Malden, Ill., grenade attack

    April 5:

    Army Spc. Larry K. Brown, 22, of Jackson, Miss., combat

    April 4:

    Army Capt. Tristan N. Aitken, 31, State College, Pa., combat

    Army Pfc. Wilfred D. Bellard, 20, Lake Charles, La., vehicle fell into ravine

    Army Spc. Daniel Francis J. Cunningham, 33, Lewiston, Maine, vehicle fell into ravine

    Marine Capt. Travis Ford, 30, Oceanside, Calif., helicopter crash

    Marine Cp. Bernard G. Gooden, 22, Mount Vernon, N.Y., combat

    Army Pvt. Devon D. Jones, 19, San Diego, vehicle fell into ravine

    Marine 1st Lt. Brian M. McPhillips, 25, Pembroke, Mass., combat

    Marine Sgt. Duane R. Rios, 25, Hammond, Ind., combat.

    Marine Capt. Benjamin Sammis, 29, Rehoboth, Mass., helicopter crash

    Army Sgt. 1st Class Paul R. Smith, 33, of Tampa, Fla., combat

    As of April 16th, Formerly Listed as


    Marine Pfc. Tamario D. Burkett, 21, Buffalo, N.Y.

    Marine Cpl. Kemaphoom A. Chanawongse, 22, Waterford, Conn.

    Marine Lance Cpl. Donald J. Cline, Jr., 21, Sparks, Nev.

    Marine Pvt. Jonathan L. Gifford, 30, Decatur, Ill.

    Marine Pvt. Nolen R. Hutchings, 19, Boiling Springs, S.C.

    Marine Sgt. Fernando Padilla-Ramirez, 26, Yuma, Ariz.

    Marine Sgt. Brendon Reiss, 23, Casper, Wyo.



    Army Sgt. Edward J. Anguiano, 24, Brownsville, Texas.

    Deaths as of April 16th  (continued)

    Marine Capt. Benjamin Sammis,
    age 29, Rehoboth, Mass.
    April 3:

    Marine Pfc. Chad E. Bales, 20, Coahoma, Texas, non-hostile accident

    Army Sgt. Wilbert Davis, 40, Hinesville, Ga., vehicle accident

    Marine Cpl. Mark A. Evnin, 21, South Burlington, Vt., combat

    Army Capt. Edward J. Korn, 31, Savannah, Ga., combat

    Army Staff Sgt. Nino D. Livaudais, 23, Ogden, Utah, combat

    Army Spc. Ryan P. Long, 21, Seaford, Del., combat

    Army Spc. Donald S. Oaks Jr., 20, Harborcreek, Pa., combat

    Army Sgt. 1st Class Randy Rehn, 36, Longmont, Colo., combat

    Army Capt. Russell B. Rippetoe, 27, Arvada, Colo., combat

    Army Sgt. Todd J. Robbins, 33, Hart, Mich., combat

    Marine Cpl. Erik H. Silva, 22, Chula Vista, Calif., combat

    Army Spc. Mathew Boule
    age 22, Dracut, Mass.
    April 2:

    Army Capt. James F. Adamouski, 29, Springfield, Va., helicopter crash

    Marine Lance Cpl. Brian E. Anderson, 26, Durham, N.C., non-hostile accident

    Army Spc. Mathew Boule, 22, Dracut, Mass., helicopter crash

    Army Master Sgt. George A. Fernandez, 36, El Paso, Texas

    Marine Pfc. Christian D. Gurtner, 19, Ohio City, Ohio, non-combat weapons discharge

    Army Chief Warrant Officer Erik A. Halvorsen, 40, Bennington, Vt., helicopter crash.

    Army Chief Warrant Officer Scott Jamar, 32, Granbury, Texas, helicopter crash

    Army Sgt. Michael Pedersen, 26, Flint, Mich., helicopter crash

    Army Chief Warrant Officer Eric A. Smith, 42, Rochester, N.Y., helicopter crash

    April 1:

    Army Sgt. Jacob L. Butler, 24, Wellsville, Kan., combat

    Marine Lance Cpl. Joseph B. Maglione, 22, Lansdale, Pa., non-combat weapon discharge

    March 31:

    Army Spc. Brandon Rowe, 20, Roscoe, Ill., combat

    Army Spc. William A. Jeffries, 39, Evansville, Ind., illness

    Marine 1st Lt. Brian McPhillips
    Age 25, Pembroke, MA
    March 30:

    Marine Capt. Aaron J. Contreras, 31, Sherwood, Ore., helicopter crash

    Marine Sgt. Michael V. Lalush, 23, Troutville, Va., helicopter crash

    Marine Sgt. Brian McGinnis, 23, St. Georges, Del., helicopter crash

    March 29:

    Marine Staff Sgt. James Cawley, 41, Layton, Utah, combat

    Army Cpl. Michael Curtin, 23, Howell, N.J., suicide attack

    Army Pfc. Diego Fernando Rincon, 19, Conyers, Ga., suicide attack

    Army Pfc. Michael Russell Creighton Weldon, 20, Palm Bay, Fla., suicide attack

    Marine Lance Cpl. William W. White, 24, New York, vehicle accident

    Army Sgt. Eugene Williams, 24, Highland, N.Y, suicide attack

    March 28:

    Army Sgt. Roderic A. Solomon , 32, Fayetteville, N.C., vehicle accident

    El Paso, Texas
    March 27:

    Marine Gunnery Sgt. Joseph Menusa, 33, Tracy, Calif., combat

    Marine Lance Cpl. Jesus A. Suarez Del Solar, 20, Escondido, Calif., combat

    March 26:

    Marine Maj. Kevin G. Nave, 36, White Lake Township, Mich., vehicle accident

    March 25:

    Navy Hospital Corpsman 3rd Class Michael Vann Johnson Jr., 25, Little Rock, Ark., combat

    Marine Pfc. Francisco A. Martinez Flores, 21, Los Angeles, combat

    Marine Staff Sgt. Donald C. May, Jr., 31, Richmond, Va., combat

    Marine Lance Cpl. Patrick T. O'Day, 20, Santa Rosa, Calif., combat

    Marine Cpl. Robert M. Rodriguez, 21, New York, combat

    Air Force Maj. Gregory Stone, 40, Boise, Idaho, grenade attack

    Marine Cpl. Mark Evnin
    Age 21, Burlington, VT
    March 24:

    Marine Cpl. Evan James, 20, La Harpe, Ill., drowned in canal

    Marine Sgt. Bradley S. Korthaus, 29, Davenport, Iowa, drowned in canal

    Army Spc. Gregory P. Sanders, 19, Hobart, Ind., combat

    March 23:

    Army Spc. Jamaal R. Addison, 22, Roswell, Ga., combat

    Marine Sgt. Michael E. Bitz, 31, Ventura, Calif., combat

    Marine Lance Cpl. Brian Rory Buesing, 20, Cedar Key, Fla., combat

    Marine Lance Cpl. David K. Fribley, 26, Fort Myers, Fla., combat

    Marine Cpl. Jose A. Garibay, 21, Costa Mesa, Calif., combat

    Marine Cpl. Jorge A. Gonzalez, 20, Los Angeles, combat

    Army Pfc. Howard Johnson II, 21, Mobile, Ala., combat

    Marine Staff Sgt. Phillip A. Jordan, 42, Enfield, Conn., combat

    Marine Lance Cpl. Patrick R. Nixon, 21, Gallatin, Tenn., combat

    Marine 2nd Lt. Frederick E. Pokorney Jr., 31, Tonopah, Nev., combat

    Marine Cpl. Randal Kent Rosacker, 21, San Diego, combat

    Marine Lance Cpl. Thomas J. Slocum, 22, Thornton, Colo., combat

    Marine Lance Cpl. Michael J. Williams, 31, Yuma, Ariz.

    March 22:

    Navy Lt. Thomas Mullen Adams, 27, La Mesa, Calif., helicopter collision

    Marine Lance Cpl. Eric J. Orlowski, 26, Buffalo, N.Y., machine gun accident

    Army Capt. Christopher Scott Seifert, 27, Easton, Pa., grenade attack

    Army Reserve Spc. Brandon S. Tobler, 19, Portland, Ore., vehicle accident

    March 21:

    Marine Maj. Jay Thomas Aubin, 36, Waterville, Maine, helicopter crash

    Marine Capt. Ryan Anthony Beaupre, 30, St. Anne, Ill., helicopter crash

    Marine 2nd Lt. Therrel S. Childers, 30, Harrison County, Miss., combat

    Marine Lance Cpl. Jose Gutierrez, 28, Los Angeles, combat

    Marine Cpl. Brian Matthew Kennedy, 25, Houston, helicopter crash

    Marine Staff Sgt. Kendall Damon Waters-Bey, 29, Baltimore, helicopter crash

    Date not given:

    Marine Lance Cpl. Thomas A. Blair, 24, Broken Arrow, Okla., combat

    Army Sgt. Stevon Booker, 34, Apollo, Pa.

    Marine Sgt. Nicolas M. Hodson, 22, Smithville, Mo., vehicle accident

    Army Spc. James Kiehl, 22, Comfort, Texas, combat

    Army Sgt. George Edward Buggs, 31, Barnwell, S.C., combat

    Army Master Sgt. Robert J. Dowdy, 38, Cleveland, combat

    Army Pvt. Ruben Estrella-Soto, 18, El Paso, Texas, combat

    Army Chief Warrant Officer Johnny Villareal Mata, 35, Pecos, Texas, combat

    Army Pfc. Lori Piestewa, 22, Tuba City, Ariz., combat

    Army Pvt. Brandon Sloan, 19, Bedford Heights, Ohio, combat

    Army Sgt. Donald Walters, 33, Kansas City, Mo., combat

    note: all listed below as "captured" were found by U.S. Marines when local Iraquis directed them to the place where they were being kept

    March 24:

    Army Chief Warrant Officer 2 Ronald D. Young Jr., 26, Lithia Springs, Ga.

    Army Chief Warrant Officer 2 David S. Williams, 30, Orlando, Fla.

    March 23:

    Army Spc. Edgar Hernandez, 21, Mission, Texas

    Army Spc. Joseph Hudson, 23, Alamogordo, N.M.

    Army Spc. Shoshana Johnson, 30, Fort Bliss, Texas

    Army Pfc. Patrick Miller, 23, Park City, Kan.

    Army Sgt. James Riley, 31, Pennsauken, N.J.


    RAMSTEIN AIR BASE, Germany -- A plane carrying seven American POWs who were rescued in Iraq arrived late Wednesday at a U.S. base in Germany, where they were to be examined at a military hospital.

    The former POWs were flown to the Ramstein Air Base from Kuwait aboard a C-141 transport plane.

    The six men and one woman -- five of them comrades of former POW Jessica Lynch from the U.S. Army's 507th Maintenance Support Company, the other two freed Apache helicopter pilots from the 1st Battalion, 227th Aviation Regiment -- were in good shape, military officials said.

    The seven were to be taken to the nearby Landstuhl Regional Medical Center, where none was expected to stay long. During their capture, one was shot in the elbow a second was shot in the foot.

    They were with 41 wounded soldiers on the flight, about half of whom had combat injuries, said Maj. Mike Young, a spokesman for the 86th Airlift Wing at the base.

    Whether the seven former POWs will return to the United States together depends on their medical conditions, Landstuhl spokeswoman Marie Shaw said.

    "Most seem to be in very good health," Shaw said. "First we have to see them."

    Since reaching Kuwait on Sunday after their dramatic rescue from a house south of the Iraqi city of Tikrit, the former POWs have been kept away from news media and undergone medical checks, both physical and mental, and debriefings.

    The freed members of the 507th are Spc. Edgar Hernandez, 21, of Mission, Texas; Spc. Joseph Hudson, 23, of Alamogordo, N.M.; Spc. Shoshana Johnson, 30, of Fort Bliss, Texas; Pfc. Patrick Miller, 23, of Park City, Kan.; and Sgt. James Riley, 31, of Pennsauken, N.J.

    The freed pilots are Chief Warrant Officer David S. Williams, 30, of Orlando, Fla., and Chief Warrant Officer Ronald D. Young Jr., 26, of Lithia Springs, Ga..

    Landstuhl is the largest U.S. military hospital outside the United States, and so far has treated more than 200 patients with battlefield injuries from the war in Iraq.

    Among them was Lynch, who was flown back to the United States on Saturday.


    Marine Lane Corporal O'Day and his wife
    age 20, Santa Rosa, Cal
    March 23:

    Army Sgt. Edward J. Anguiano, 24, Brownsville, Texas.

    Marine Pfc. Tamario D. Burkett, 21, Buffalo, N.Y.

    Marine Cpl. Kemaphoom A. Chanawongse, 22, Waterford, Conn.

    Marine Lance Cpl. Donald J. Cline, Jr., 21, Sparks, Nev.

    Marine Pvt. Jonathan L. Gifford, 30, Decatur, Ill.

    Marine Pvt. Nolen R. Hutchings, 19, Boiling Springs, S.C.

    Marine Sgt. Fernando Padilla-Ramirez, 26, Yuma, Ariz.

    Marine Sgt. Brendon Reiss, 23, Casper, Wyo.




    April 6:

    Fusilier Kelan John Turrington, combat.

    Lance Cpl. Ian Malone, Dublin, Ireland, combat.

    April 1:

    Lance Cpl. Karl Shearer, killed in accident involving light armored vehicle

    March 31:

    Staff Sgt. Chris Muir, Romsey, England, killed while disposing of explosive ordnance

    March 30:

    Marine Christopher R. Maddison, combat

    Lance Cpl. Shaun Andrew Brierley, road accident

    March 28:

    Lance Cpl. Matty Hull, in combat; death is being investigated possibly as result of friendly fire

    March 25:

    Cpl. Stephen John Allbutt, Stoke-on-Trent, England, tank hit by friendly fire

    Trooper David Jeffrey Clarke, Littleworth, England, tank hit by friendly fire

    March 24:

    Sgt. Steven Mark Roberts, Bradford, England, combat

    Lance Cpl. Barry Stephen, Perth, Scotland, combat

    March 23:

    Sapper Luke Allsopp, London, combat

    Staff Sgt. Simon Cullingworth, Essex, England, combat

    Flight Lt. Kevin Barry Main, jet shot down by friendly fire

    Flight Lt. David Rhys Williams, jet shot down by friendly fire

    March 22:

    Lt. Philip Green, helicopter collision

    Lt. Marc Lawrence, helicopter collision

    Lt. Antony King, Helston, England, helicopter collision

    Lt. Philip West, Budock Water, England, helicopter collision

    Lt. James Williams, Falmouth, England, helicopter collision

    Lt. Andrew Wilson, helicopter collision

    March 21:

    Color Sgt. John Cecil, Plymouth, England, helicopter crash

    Lance Bombardier Llewelyn Karl Evans, Llandudno, Wales, helicopter crash

    Capt. Philip Stuart Guy, helicopter crash

    Marine Sholto Hedenskog, helicopter crash

    Sgt. Les Hehir, Poole, England, helicopter crash

    Operator Mechanic Second Class Ian Seymour, helicopter crash

    Warrant Officer Second Class Mark Stratford, helicopter crash

    Maj. Jason Ward, helicopter crash

    Tracy, Cal.
    Casualties as of April 5, 2003


  • 91 U.S. killed and 14 missing (++)

  • 30 British killed.


  • Iraqi military -- At least 2,320 (U.S. military estimates for Baghdad alone).

  • Iraqi civilians (Iraqi estimates) -- At least 1,252 killed.

    ++NOTE: Official figures usually lag behind actual battlefield casualties. Does not include unspecified number of deaths from "friendly fire" incident on April 6.U.S. MILITARY IN COMBAT:

    April 2 -- F/A-18 Hornet single-seat fighter-bomber downed in southern Iraq, pilot missing. Possible it was shot down by U.S. Patriot missile.

    April 4/5 -- At least one soldier is killed in the battle for Baghdad airport.

    April 5 -- The Pentagon identifies eight more soldiers killed in an ambush on March 23.

    April 6 -- One soldier killed northwest of Baghdad when Iraqi fighters ambush a military convoy.

    April 7 -- Two U.S. Marines were killed and many were injured in fighting to secure two bridges over a river -- identified as the Nahr Diyala, a tributary of the Tigris on the edge of Baghdad.

    - Two U.S. soldiers were killed and six others wounded in an Iraqi attack on the 2nd Brigade's tactical operation centre south of the city, in the southern outskirts of Baghdad. A further six servicemen were missing.

    - The Pentagon identified six of the casualties killed when their UH-60 Black Hawk helicopter crashed in central Iraq on April 2. The incident remains under investigation.BRITISH MILITARY IN COMBAT:

    April 3 -- Defence Secretary Geoff Hoon said 39 British casualties were being treated on the ground and a further 35 had been evacuated from the region.

    April 6 -- Three British soldiers were killed in the southern Iraqi city of Basra, taking the British death toll in the war against Iraq to 30, the defence ministry said.IRAQI MILITARY:

    April 5 -- U.S. says 320 Iraqi soldiers killed in battle for Baghdad airport.

    April 6 -- U.S. military says its forces killed over 2,000 Iraqi fighters in Baghdad since its troops attacked the city's outskirts.IRAQI CIVILIANS:

    April 2 -- Iraq says overnight bombing by U.S.-led forces killed 24 civilians and injured 186 across the country.

    April 3 -- Iraq's Foreign Minister Naji Sabri said more than 1,250 civilians have been killed and 5,000 injured since March 20, the start of the war.U.S. AND BRITISH NON-COMBAT DEATHS:

    April 3 -- Three U.S. soldiers killed when an F-15E Strike Eagle fighter plane may have accidentally bombed a U.S. artillery position south of Baghdad.

    - A U.S. soldier of the Army's 5th Corp killed by possible "friendly fire" in central Iraq. It appears he was mistaken for an enemy soldier while investigating a destroyed Iraqi tank.

    April 5 -- Two U.S. Marine pilots killed when their AH-1W Super Cobra attack helicopter crashed in central Iraq. Indications that it was not a result of hostile fire.

    April 6 -- A U.S. plane mistakenly bombed a convoy of U.S. special forces and Kurdish fighters, killing 18 Kurds and wounding over 45, including the brother of Kurdish leader Massoud Barzani.JOURNALISTS KILLED:

    March 22 -- Australian cameraman Paul Moran killed by car bomb in northern Iraq.

    March 22 -- Terry Lloyd, journalist from Britain's Independent Television News, killed after coming under fire on way to Basra. Cameraman Fred Nerac and translator Hussein Othman, travelling with Lloyd, are missing.

    April 2 -- Kaveh Golestan, an Iranian freelance cameraman working for the BBC killed when he stepped on a landmine. He had been filming at Kifri.

    April 3 -- Michael Kelly, former editor-in-chief of The Atlantic Monthly, was killed with a U.S. soldier in an accident involving their Humvee military jeep.NON-IRAQIS:

    March 23 -- Syria said U.S. and British aircraft bombed a bus carrying Syrian civilian workers returning home from Iraq, killing five and wounding an unspecified number.MISSING:

    March 22 -- Two journalists from Britain's Independent Television News missing after coming under fire on way to Basra.

    April 4 -- International relief group Medecins Sans Frontieres (MSF) said two of its six-member team in Baghdad missing since April 2. Announced it had suspended operations in Iraq.

  • 'Invisible soldier' disappearance shocks Arizona Indian reservations

    Copyright © 2003 AP Online
    By LYNN DUCEY, Associated Press

    TUBA CITY, Ariz. (March 28, 2003 3:01 p.m. EST) - In this wind-swept town on the sprawling Navajo reservation, an American flag flutters near a trailer home and a swing set moves in the breeze. A stream of solemn visitors silently pass by yellow balloons and signs offering support.

    "The spirits are there and the angels have gone to keep her safe. Don't worry. We love you," reads one poster taped to a chain link fence.

    Inside the home are the parents of Pfc. Lori Piestewa, who has been missing in Iraq since last weekend. The 23-year-old Hopi is the daughter of a Vietnam veteran, the granddaughter of a World War II veteran and a source of pride for Tuba City as one of the very few Indian women in the military.

    "The town's kind of in a little shock," said one of the residents, Rick Holmes. "We can't have nothing done. We have to wait and see."

    Piestewa is a member of the Army's 507th Maintenance Company, which was attacked by Iraqi soldiers last Sunday. At least two 507th soldiers were killed, and the Defense Department said eight more are missing and five are prisoners of war. Piestewa is among the missing.

    This town of 8,200 people - mostly a collection of government offices, a grocery store, a coin-operated laundry and a pizza parlor - is marked by its dark red dirt and its tight-knit residents. It is on the Navajo Reservation but close to Hopi land.

    "It's been a very sudden traumatic experience for everyone," said Vanessa Charles, spokeswoman for the Hopi Tribe. "These situations are the sort of things that bring people together. It unites people. It helps people put their differences aside."

    Officials from both tribes have attended prayer services in honor of Piestewa (pronounced pee-ESS-tuh-wah) and other military personnel. Hopi officials say she is one of 45 Hopis serving in the U.S. military.

    Historically, American Indians have enlisted in the U.S. military at higher rates than other groups. Defense Department officials say about 12,800 Indians are enlisted.

    But as an Indian woman, Piestewa remains a statistical rarity.

    Brenda Finnicum, a retired Army nurse and member of the Lumbee tribe, has researched the service of American Indian women in the military for five years and says many tell her they never met another Indian woman in the service.

    "Indian women are what I call the invisible warrior. You don't see them," Finnicum said. But she said Indian women have fought in every American conflict for the last 200 years.

    Piestewa's relatives say they aren't trying to draw attention to her.

    "We are asking that you continue your prayers for all the brave men and women of the armed services and that you pray for their families as well," the family said in a statement.

    They remains hopeful Piestewa, a mother of a 4-year-old boy and a 3-year-old girl, will return home safely with the rest of her company.

    "We're just keeping the faith," said one of her brothers, Wayland Piestewa. "And sometimes no news is good news, so we're still hoping."

    Meanwhile, the town is doing what it can, regularly delivering food to the Piestewas, and messages of support. Many cars sport yellow ribbons.

    Just inside the entrance to the Bashas' Supermarket, a large photo of Piestewa in uniform is surrounded by yellow roses and other flowers. Green poster boards have been set up to allow the community to write messages to the family.

    "A lot of the community members wanted to express their feelings, but not everybody can talk to the family right now," said market employee Reva Hoover.

    Teacher Marjorie McCabe said the uncertainty about Piestewa's whereabouts is hard to bear.

    "It's just waiting to hear something. I wish the military would find out and let the family know," she said. "They need to know something more definite. The waiting must be killing them."
    Lori Piestewa declared dead
    Hopi soldier from Tuba City was among eight bodies found during rescue of Jessica Lynch.  She was the mother of two young children, and the pride of the Window Rock reservation
    Michael Kelley, Editor-in-Chief of the Atlantic Monthly,
    is killed in action On April 3rd
    as an embedded reporter in Iraq. 
    Michael, a resident of Scampscott, Mass, leaves his wife and two small children. Michael had stepped down from his position as Editor-in-Chief to become "Editor at Large" in order to fulfill his desire to report from the Iraqui frontlines. Michael was riding in his HUMMV when he and the U.S. Army 3rd Infantry Division came under mortar attack. 
    Michael Kelly in Kuwait City, March 11, 2003.
    (Photographs courtesy of ABC News Nightline)

    David Bradley, the chairman and owner of Atlantic Media, said "This is the first friend and the best friend I made in journalism. In that quarter of the heart, he can't be touched. He is loved by everyone at The Atlantic, by everyone at the National Journal, by everyone at the places we worked together. The Atlantic has had 145 years of good times and bad, but no moment more deeply sad than this one now. The best we can make of this hour is to surround his wife and children and parents and family with some measure of the love we have for Michael."

    FRIDAY, MARCH 21, 2003
    Cullen Murphy, the managing editor of The Atlantic Monthly said, "Mike Kelly was a loyal and warm friend, a passionate and courageous advocate, an extraordinary reporter and editor, and above all a profoundly good and generous man. You didn't need to know Mike for long to understand that you could stake your life on all of those qualities. You also couldn't know him long before you came to appreciate his wonderful sense of the preposterousespecially if it involved himself. He saw his profession not as a game but as a public service. I want Mike's boys Tom and Jack to know that their Dad was a hero. His loss is devastating to all of us."

    John Fox Sullivan president and group publisher of Atlantic Media, said, "Some people knew Michael as one of this country's most gifted writers and editors. Many knew him as a fiery columnist. I knew him as an honest, funny, caring and even gentle human being. He was one of a kind who will be sorely missed and never forgotten."

    Michael Kelly, 46, was until recently the editor in chief of The Atlantic, a position he assumed in 1999. Kelly was embedded with the US Army's 3rd Infantry Division, covering the war in Iraq for The Atlantic and for The Washington Post, for whom he wrote a weekly syndicated column.

    Mike was no stranger to this story. He was the author of the highly acclaimed book Martyrs' Day (1993), a firsthand account of the first Gulf War, which won the PEN-Martha Albrand award and was included in the notable books listing of The New York Times.

    Hundreds remember Kelly with laughter and tears


    Staff writer

    Wednesday, April 9th, 2003 

    SWAMPSCOTT -- Michael Kelly's funeral was yesterday, and at the precise moment that hundreds of friends were remembering his remarkable life, jubilant Iraqis were arranging a noose around a giant statue of Saddam Hussein in downtown Baghdad.

    A supporter of the Iraq war, described by his father yesterday as an "enemy of tyrants," Kelly died last week while covering the war for the Washington Post and the Atlantic Monthly. He was the victim of a Humvee accident that also took the life of an American soldier.

    So far, his is the only known North Shore death associated with the war.

    "He didn't go to Iraq to become more famous," his father, Tom Kelly, told mourners at St. John the Evangelist Roman Catholic Church. "He went to take care of people. He was the confrontational enemy of tyrants. He went to Iraq the second time because he saw the bloody handiwork of Saddam Hussein in 1990."


    Michael Kelly, 46, who had served as top editor of both the New Republic and the Atlantic Monthly, left behind a wife, Madelyn, and two young sons, Tom, 6, and Jack, 3. The family lives in Swampscott.

    As a mix of rain and snow fell outside, inside the church voices broke with grief, children cried, and, now and then, people laughed remembering Kelly in brief tributes spoken from the altar.

    "A shy man," said brother-in-law Tony Rizzoli. "But boy was he funny."

    Atlantic editor James Fallows recalled a sometimes disorganized style. Using Kelly's computer once, Fallows asked him with astonishment, "Do you know you have 3,500 unread messages?"

    Friend Susan Reed remembered eating in with Kelly and his wife in Chicago when word came of a San Francisco earthquake. The three journalists rushed to the airport. When Kelly finally got back, he noticed an unpleasant odor.

    "In his rush to get to the big story, Mike had left the oven on for an entire week," Reed said.

    Kelly, who started his career at The Beverly Times, had covered the first Gulf War. He showed the caution of an experienced war correspondent, Reed said. "Mike was not trying to be a hero. He was just covering a very dangerous story."

    His sister, Meg Rizzoli, took care to pay tribute to Staff Sgt. Wilbur Davis of the 3rd Infantry Division, "who died with Michael outside of Baghdad."

    As mourners arrived, they were given a small collection of excerpts from Kelly's columns, ranging from 1997 to his final dispatch, "Across the Euphrates," on April 3.

    One column lampooned former President Bill Clinton.

    "I believe the president," Kelly wrote in a now famous 1998 piece. "I believed him when he said he had never been drafted in the Vietnam War, and I believed him when he said he had forgotten to mention that he had been drafted in the Vietnam War."

    But he also wrote lovingly of the joys of good food, of his sons and his family. All happy families are not alike, he noted in 1997, disputing Tolstoy. But, he wrote, "every unhappy family is very much alike, the same tedious, awful story of selfishness and dead love."

    Kelly met his wife, Madelyn, on the press bus of the Dukakis campaign in 1988. "The smartest thing Michael ever did," his father said, "was to find and marry Madelyn."

    She is Jewish, which meant that they celebrated both Christmas and Hannukah, "which our sons, Tom and Jack, regard as an excellent thing," he wrote in 2001.

    It was perhaps these differences that led him to note that happy families are full of "cherished oddities."

    "Look around the table on Christmas night, or as you light the menorah, and regard your doddering parents and your annoying siblings and your dotty aunt and your insufferable uncle and your cousin the schnorrer and your nephew the nose-ringed," he wrote, "and rejoice in your magnificent wealth."

    U.S. Marine Lance Crpl JOSE GUTIERREZ
    Posthumous citizenship granted to Marines killed in combat

    Copyright © 2003 AP Online

    By CHELSEA J. CARTER, Associated Press

    LAGUNA NIGUEL, Calif. (April 2, 2003   10:43 p.m. EST) - Marine Cpl. Jose Angel Garibay and Lance Cpl. Jose Gutierrez gave their lives in Iraq, waging war for the United States, a land they loved and believed in.

    No matter that it wasn't their official homeland; they were determined that one day it would be.

    That day came Wednesday.

    With the help of their families and fellow Marines, Garibay and Gutierrez became American citizens posthumously. The acting director of the Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services signed the papers without fanfare, without the men's families or the media to watch.

    An executive order signed by President Bush last year allows family of troops killed in war to apply for posthumous citizenship. The certificates will be presented to the families if that's their wish, according to the bureau.

    Gutierrez, 22, of Lomita, Calif., died March 21 at the port city of Umm Qasr, one of the first casualties of the war.

    When he was 14, Gutierrez crossed into California after taking trains from Guatemala through Mexico. The orphan found a foster family, attended high school in Southern California and then joined the Marine Corps. He was assigned as an infantry rifleman with the 2nd Battalion, 1st Marine Regiment, at Camp Pendleton, Calif.

    Gutierrez's family said they were waiting for the paperwork before setting a date for a memorial service in Los Angeles.

    "We're proud as a family that he was able to become a citizen because that's one of the things he wanted to do. And we are honored," Lillian Cardenas, his foster sister, told The Associated Press.

    Gutierrez's body was to remain in Delaware until arrangements between the United States and Guatemala were finalized, family members said.

    U.S. Marine Cpl. JOSE A. GARIBAY
    Garibay, 21, of Costa Mesa, Calif., died March 23 in Nasiriyah, south of Baghdad. He was a native of Jalisco, Mexico, whose family moved to the United States when he was a baby. Garibay joined the Marines three years ago and was assigned to the 1st Battalion, 2nd Marine Regiment, 2nd Marine Expeditionary Brigade, at Camp Lejeune, N.C.

    Garibay's family was awaiting the return of his remains. Once returned, the family will hold a memorial service in Costa Mesa.

    Several telephone calls to Camp Pendleton, which is coordinating the citizenship requests, were not returned.

    Marine Maj. Brian Dolan, who has been helping the Garibay family, told The Orange County Register the Marine Corps facilitated the citizenship process after Garibay's mother, Simona, mentioned that it was her son's dream to become a citizen.

    "I took that on as something we possibly could help out with and do the right thing," Dolan said, adding that Garibay's mother is also in the process of becoming a citizen.

    "Her son died fighting for this country, so I certainly think it is warranted that her son gained citizenship and is buried as an American citizen," Dolan said.

    New casualties make 11 journalists dead since first strike

    Copyright © 2003
    Christian Science Monitor Service
    By MARY WILTENBURG, Christian Science Monitor

    (April 9, 2003 5:06 a.m. EDT) - This was the plan: to cover the war from the inside, whatever the cost. Now, with the conflict in Iraq in its 21st day, news organizations around the world are counting those costs among their own.

    Considering the short duration of the war, this campaign has been the deadliest for journalists in modern history. While many expected a high number of casualties among reporters because of the sheer numbers "embedded" with allied troops and the dangers of covering war on the front lines, the journalist death toll has been roughly 16 times that of coalition troops. To date, 11 news organization employees have been killed since March 21.

    "The statistics are certainly chilling - to have this many journalists killed or missing in just three weeks of conflict," says Joel Campagna, Middle East program coordinator for the nonprofit Committee to Protect Journalists, "News organizations had months of preparation for this conflict, months to mull the risks ... but it's difficult to prepare for something like this."

    The dangers may become greater. As troops and journalists shift their focus to Baghdad, urban warfare represents the next risk. On Tuesday, two journalists belonging to Reuters were killed and at least three more were injured when a U.S. tank fired on an 18-story hotel in the Iraqi capital. Separately, a correspondent for the al-Jazeera television network was killed after the organization's Baghdad office was hit by U.S. bombs.

    CNN's Walter Rodgers, who has been embedded with the 3rd Squadron of the U.S. Army's 7th Cavalry, came under heavy fire when the squadron headed for the southern suburbs of Baghdad. His crew, traveling in a Humvee, was unharmed. "There were ambushes on both sides of the road, rocket-propelled grenades, machine-gun fire," he says. Rodgers says the high casualty rates in this conflict are "a direct consequence of the embedding process, because the Pentagon allowed many journalists to come up to the tip of the tip of the spear."

    Some 600 reporters and photographers are now embedded with U.S. and British troops in Iraq. Another 1,000-plus "unilaterals," journalists not officially paired with a military unit, are in and around the country.

    Campagna estimates that between 100 and 150 reporters are camped in Baghdad. Another 100 to 200 hundred are probably in northern Iraq; and several dozen more are scattered throughout the countryside.

    No casualty rate for journalists in any recent conflict compares. The four reporters killed in the 1991 Gulf War died not in combat, but in the chaos that followed the withdrawal of U.S. troops.

    Though a deadly stretch in November 2001 saw eight journalists assassinated in Afghanistan in 16 days, there has not been such a number of combat casualties since the Vietnam War - and then, the 64 journalists who lost their lives there and in Cambodia did so over almost 10 years.

    Killing prompts new war crime call
    BBC News, Monday, May 5, 2003
    James Miller
    James Miller was well-respected

    The killing of reporters in war zones should be made a new war crime after the death of a British cameraman in Gaza, campaigners say.

    James Miller, 34, from Devon, was shot in the southern troublespot of Rafah.

    Initial findings from an Israeli Defence Forces investigation into the affair indicate that the correspondent was shot in the back, with sources suggesting that he may have been hit by Palestinian gunfire.

    The award-winning journalist was filming a documentary on the effect of terrorism on children for the American cable giant HBO.

    Another Briton who had been with Mr Miller said they were waving a white flag and moving towards an Israeli armoured vehicle when it opened fire.

    Aidan White, general secretary of the International Federation of Journalists, said the Israeli army must not be allowed to "brush aside" Mr Miller's death with their "routine and callous expressions of regret".

    The Israeli army said it had returned fire after being attacked by rocket-propelled grenades and expressed "sorrow at a civilian death".

    But a spokesman added: "It must be stressed a cameraman who knowingly enters a combat zone, especially at night, endangers himself."

    Palestinians show their solidarity
    Palestinian journalists have showed their support

    Mr White, whose federation operates on behalf of about 500,000 journalists globally, said there must be a full inquiry into Mr Miller's death, a call echoed by the Foreign Office.

    "Killing journalists either deliberately or by gross negligence should be made official war crimes under international law," he said.

    "There is now an unstoppable wave of anger within journalism which is calling for action to halt this process.

    "The military authorities cannot any longer ignore the fact that journalists in war zones and conflict areas are doing a legitimate and important public duty and that special attention must be paid to their safety."

    Mr White said it was a "terrible irony" that Mr Miller died on World Press Freedom Day.

    A Foreign Office spokesman said: "We are in contact with the Israeli authorities and pushing for a full and transparent investigation."

    Mr Miller was born in Haverfordwest, Pembrokeshire, and had been living in Devon with his wife and son.

    The cameraman had won international acclaim for his documentary work including Beneath the Veil - a film about life under the Taleban.

    James Miller
    The cameraman was working for US TV

    He was killed in Rafah, an area of Gaza on the southern border with Egypt which is a site of frequent gun battles between Israeli soldiers and Palestinian militants.

    On Friday, the Israeli foreign ministry announced plans to crack down on international "human shield" volunteers who have attempted to prevent demolitions.

    They started by detaining a member of the International Solidarity Movement (ISM) in Rafah.

    A British peace activist with the ISM is now in a coma after he was shot in the head by an Israeli tank in Rafah last month.

    Thomas Hurndall, 22, was believed to have been among a group of nine activists who had to abandon their planned protest at a refugee camp in Rafah when shooting started.

    Two other peace activists were also wounded last month and a 23-year-old American was killed in March.

    Body 'matches' Iraq expert, Dr. David Kelly
    A body matching the description of Dr. David Kelly - the weapons expert at the centre of the Iraq dossier row - has been found at a beauty spot close to his home in Oxfordshire.
    BBC News  Friday, July 18th

    The government says an independent judicial inquiry will be held into the circumstances of his death if the body is confirmed to be that of the MoD adviser.

    The discovery was made at 0920 BST by a member of the police team searching for Dr Kelly in a wooded area at Harrowdown Hill, near Faringdon.

    Dr Kelly, 59, had been caught up in a row between the BBC and the government about the use of intelligence reports in the run-up to the war with Iraq.

    1500 BST: Told wife going for a walk near their home
    2345 BST: Police informed he is missing

    On Tuesday he told the Foreign Affairs select committee he had spoken to BBC reporter Andrew Gilligan but denied he was the main source for a story about claims that a dossier on Iraq had been "sexed up".

    Dr Kelly left his home in Southmoor, Abingdon, Oxfordshire, at about 1500 BST on Thursday and his family reported him missing at 2345 BST the same day.

    The body was found lying on the ground, around five miles from Dr Kelly's home, a police spokeswoman said.

    Acting superintendent Dave Purnell said formal identification would take place on Saturday and the case was being treated as an "unexplained death".

    "We will be awaiting the results of the post mortem and also waiting while the forensic examination continues at the scene at Harrowdown Hill," he added.

    A hearse left the scene shortly before 2000 BST on Friday.


    The government announcement of an inquiry if the body is Dr Kelly's came from the prime minister's plane as he flew for a visit to Tokyo.
    David Kelly, government weapons proliferation adviser
    He is not used to the media glare, he is not used to the intense spotlight he has been put under
    Richard Ottaway
    Tory MP

    Mr Blair's spokesman said: "The prime minister is obviously very distressed for the family.

    "If it is Dr Kelly's body, the Ministry of Defence will hold an independent judicial inquiry into the circumstances leading up to his death."

    Officials stressed the inquiry would not be the wide-ranging investigation into the run-up to the war urged by opposition MPs.

    It will be headed by a law lord - Lord Hutton - but it is expected to take a matter of weeks not months.

    Tory leader Iain Duncan Smith said Mr Blair should consider cutting short his trip to the Far East.

    Robert Jackson, the Conservative MP in whose constituency Dr Kelly lived, said the "responsibility of the BBC should not go unmentioned" in the case.

    "The pressure was significantly increased by the fact the BBC refused to make it clear he was not the source," he said.

    A BBC spokesman said: "We are shocked and saddened to hear what has happened and we extend our deepest sympathies to Dr Kelly's family and friends.


    "Whilst Dr Kelly's family await the formal identification, it would not be appropriate for us to make any further statement."

    Earlier this week, Dr Kelly denied being the BBC's main source for the story claiming Downing Street had "sexed up" the dossier about Iraqi weapons of mass destruction.

    MPs on the Commons foreign affairs committee, which questioned Dr Kelly earlier this week, reacted with shock and disbelief at news of his disappearance.

    Huge media attention has been on Dr Kelly since the Ministry of Defence said he had come forward to admit meeting Andrew Gilligan, the BBC correspondent behind the controversial Iraq story.

    Mr Gilligan said a source had told him that the dossier on Iraq had been "transformed" by Downing Street.

    The BBC correspondent has refused to name his source, but the MoD said Dr Kelly had come forward to say it may have been him.


    Supt Purnell said a police family liaison officer is with Dr Kelly's family. He is married to Janice and they have three daughters, Sian, 32, and twins Rachel and Ellen, 30.

    A police officer in the area where the body was found
    Ann Lewis, a neighbour of Dr Kelly, told BBC News Online she was "devastated".

    She said: "He was a quiet man. He was a man who showed great care and concern for others."

    Craig Foster, 36, landlord of the Blue Boar public house in nearby Longworth, said Dr Kelly was "a very well liked gentleman".

    A Ministry of Defence spokeswoman said: "We are aware that Dr David Kelly has gone missing and we are obviously concerned."


    The ministry said Dr Kelly had at no point been threatened with suspension or dismissal for speaking to Mr Gilligan.

    It was made clear to him that he had broken civil service rules by having unauthorised contact with a journalist, but "that was the end of it", said a spokesman.

    There must be more to this than we had thought. I do not know what that means, I just think there is
    John Maples
    Foreign affairs committee

    Downing Street says "normal personnel procedures" were followed after Dr Kelly volunteered that he might have been the source of Mr Gilligan's report.

    It was made clear to Dr Kelly that his name was likely to become public knowledge because he was one of only a small number of people it could have been about, a spokesman said.

    After questioning Dr Kelly earlier this week, the Commons foreign affairs select committee said it was "most unlikely" he was the main source for the BBC story.

    And they said Dr Kelly, who has worked as a weapons inspector in Iraq, had been "poorly treated" by the government - a charge strongly rejected by the MoD.

    Committee chairman Donald Anderson told the BBC his "heart went out" to Dr Kelly's family as the search for the official went on.

    Another member of the committee, Tory John Maples said he was "speechless" after hearing of the discovery of a body.

    "If it is (Dr Kelly), it is just awful. What can you say? Nothing," he said.

    Tory MP Richard Ottaway, another committee member, said: "He is not used to the media glare, he is not used to the intense spotlight he has been put under."

    BBC said no to truce on dossier row

    Offer made before Kelly was named

    Matt Wells, Michael White and Richard Norton-Taylor
    Monday July 21, 2003
    The Guardian

    BBC bosses blocked a compromise which might have prevented the suicide of David Kelly, the weapons expert confirmed by the corporation yesterday as its source for the story of the "sexed-up' dossier.

    The Guardian can reveal that the BBC chairman, Gavyn Davies, and the director general, Greg Dyke, were made an offer in the days before Dr Kelly was identified, but turned it down because they were determined to give no ground in their battle with Alastair Campbell, director of communications at No 10.

    Last night Andrew Gilligan, the journalist at the centre of the controversy, claimed that he had not misquoted Dr Kelly, a clear implication that the 59-year-old weapons specialist had not given the full story about their conversations to the foreign affairs select committee.

    Dr Kelly, who admitted talking to Gilligan, was found dead near his Oxfordshire home on Friday morning after apparently taking painkillers and cutting his wrist the previous afternoon. Friends suggested yesterday that he was concerned that he would be prevented from returning to Iraq to hunt for evidence of chemical and biological weapons.

    The BBC's admission of his role triggered a partisan scalp-hunt that was almost as ferocious as the demands for Tony Blair, Mr Campbell and the defence secretary, Geoff Hoon, to step down for their part in his "outing". Labour's Gerald Kaufman led the pack, accusing the BBC of "tabloid" journalism and urging a review of the corporation's status. Dr Kelly's Tory MP, Robert Jackson, blamed the BBC for his death.

    The news that the BBC had turned down a possible compromise will only add to the pressure on the corporation. Challenged about the deal on the day before Dr Kelly's name appeared in the press, Mr Dyke said: "It was last week." He refused to comment further.

    A senior BBC executive said on the same day: "Greg and Gavyn were told that if they wanted to have a conversation about it, there were people in No 10 who would be ready to have a conversation about it."

    Mr Dyke and Mr Davies decided not to the pursue the opportunity because the strategy, at the time, was one of all-out defence against the onslaught from Mr Campbell.

    Informed sources said that Mr Davies and Mr Dyke - both past Labour donors - had felt the need to prove their independence. "Greg had a rush of blood to the head and sexed up Richard Sambrook's letters," a senior MP said.

    Later Mr Davies blocked Mr Dyke seeking to seize peace feelers. "If it emerged he'd found some accommodation with the government it would have destroyed his credibility within the organisation. He'd have been dismissed as a Labour patsy," the MP said.

    However, there are signs that BBC executives feel the pugnacious strategy was ill-judged, with hindsight at least.

    One well-placed source said last night: "The question that is being looked at very seriously is whether it was right to mount an all-out defence, or whether it required more moderation: an admission perhaps that there were some aspects of the story that we cannot be entirely sure about."

    Mr Blair visibly relaxed when he was tipped off in Seoul that the BBC was about to give ground, appealing for "a period of reflection" while Lord Hutton's inquiry into the tragedy takes evidence. No one in government is expected to quit at this stage - if at all.

    In a significant show of support, the chancellor, Gordon Brown, whose allies have been calling for him to take over the premiership, let it be known that he is backing Mr Blair's call for a "period of restraint, reflection and respect".

    In a speech in New York today he will conspicuously support the Blair line on the threat posed by Saddam Hussein's weapons arsenal.

    Mr Blair rejected Iain Duncan Smith's demand for a recall of parliament, saying it would "generate more heat than light" when Dr Kelly's family should be left to grieve.

    The New York Times reported that Dr Kelly had told of "many dark actors playing games", in an email to one of its writers hours before his suicide. It said he appeared to be referring to defence and intelligence officials with whom he had sparred over interpretations of weapons reports.

    But there was renewed speculation at Westminster that he may not have been wholly frank with the foreign affairs committee about his dealings with Gilligan, and that this triggered anxiety in a morally scrupulous man.

    Kelly sermon blames 'unholy alliance'
    BBC NEWS Sunday July 20th
    Lichfield Cathedral
    The archbishop gave his sermon at Lichfield Anglican Cathedral
    The Roman Catholic archbishop of Birmingham has criticised an "unholy alliance" between politicians and the media during a tribute to the late Dr David Kelly.

    Vincent Nichols said the Iraq weapons expert's death should cause everyone, especially those in public life, to reflect, in a sermon at Lichfield Anglican Cathedral.

    The media and politicians were involved in an "unholy alliance" that manipulated opinion, he said.

    Dr Kelly's body was discovered in woodland near his Oxfordshire home on Friday morning, with a knife and a packet of painkillers close by.

    Police confirmed on Saturday that the senior Ministry of Defence adviser had bled to death from a cut to his wrist.

    On Sunday, the BBC revealed Dr Kelly had been the principal source for a report that Downing Street "sexed up" an Iraq weapons dossier to boost public support for military action.

    The archbishop said that both the media and politicians should reflect on the "grave responsibilities" to the truth that they should uphold.

    He told his congregation: "It distresses me deeply to think that there are people in positions of eminent public responsibility who know the answer to the questions Dr Kelly was being asked.

    Roman Catholic Archbishop of Birmingham Vincent Nichols
    Archbishop Nichols: 'We will learn truth'

    "Yet they remain silent, believing that the confidentiality of their sources is more important. More important than one man's life? I think not.

    "Nor do we know the kind of political or personal pressure put on Dr Kelly. Certainly he complained of the harassment of the media. But there were other pressures too.

    "I trust that in due course we will learn the truth about them.

    Mr Nichols said that when public life and the media are so "devoid of compassion", and become "cavalier with the truth", they become a distortion of their true purpose.

    "It is time for us to recover some of our finer qualities and enshrine them again in our public and civic life," he added.

    And in another service at Southmoor Methodist Church, near Abingdon, Oxfordshire, just yards from the Kelly family's home, prayers were offered for his widow, Janice.

    Everybody in this small community is trying to come to terms with his death
    Methodist preacher David Kershaw

    Methodist preacher David Kershaw said during the service: "We pray for the family of Dr David Kelly and hope they can come to terms with this awful tragedy.

    "We pray that God may offer comfort to them in helping them rebuild their lives.

    "We pray that they will now be able to grieve in peace."

    Speaking after the service he added: "It has been absolutely dreadful for the people here. Nobody understands how this could happen.

    "Everybody is bewildered. The spot where he was found is a popular walking area and a lot of people go there blackberry picking.

    He was such a good man and his death could have been avoided
    Friend of Dr Kelly, Chrisopher Jones
    "From what I understand he was a very conscientious man and everybody in this small community is trying to come to terms with his death."

    News of the death of the former top germ warfare scientist had rocked the community in Southmoor.

    Many who knew Dr Kelly said they were shocked and angry at the circumstances surrounding his death.

    Landlady Lindsey Atkins of the Wagon and Horses pub, which is directly opposite the Kelly's home said: "The question is could David's death have been prevented now that all of this information is out in the open?

    "It's all too late after this terrible tragedy."

    Pensioner Christopher Jones, who said he had known Dr Kelly ever since he moved to the area, added: "He was such a good man and his death could have been avoided.

    "I used to walk with David to our local pub most evenings. He was a gentleman, a polite, courteous and educated person, who was much loved and had many friends here."

    Suicide condemned

    Dr Kelly had regularly attended a Baha'i centre in Abingdon since converting to the religion four years ago in the United States.

    The pacifist faith, founded in Iran about 160 years ago, preaches tolerance and unity.

    Barnabas Leith, secretary of the national assembly of the Baha'is in the UK, added the 6,000 British Baha'is and the five million worldwide were "praying for the progress of David Kelly's soul", his wife, Janice, and three daughters, Sian, 32, and 30-year-old twins Rachel and Ellen.

    Timeline: the Gilligan affair sets out who said what, to whom and when in the continuing war of words between the government and the BBC.

    Friday July 18, 2003

    May 29
    What the Gilligan BBC report said

    In a report on Radio 4's Today programme, the BBC defence correspondent Andrew Gilligan quotes an unnamed source alleging Downing Street wanted the government's dossier on Iraq "sexed up" with a reference to Saddam Hussein's ability to launch a biological or chemical attack within 45 minutes.

    Read the full transcript of Gilligan's report

    June 1
    What Andrew Gilligan said in the Mail on Sunday

    Gilligan repeats the allegations in his column in the Mail on Sunday, giving more details of the secret meeting at a central London hotel with his source.

    "We started off by moaning about the railways. Only after about half an hour did the story emerge that would dominate the headlines for 48 hours, ruin Tony Blair's Basra awayday and work the prime minister into a state of controlled fury," he wrote.

    Gilligan said his source "knew, better than anyone," that evidence of a weapons of mass destruction programme in Iraq "didn't amount to the 'imminent threat' touted by ministers".

    He described the source as "gently despairing" about the way Downing Street had exaggerated the case for war. And he quoted him saying that while conventional missiles could be launched in 45 minutes, there was no evidence for the government's claim that this applied to weapons of mass destruction. "I asked him how this transformation happened. The answer was a single word. 'Campbell.' What? Campbell made it up? 'No, it was real information. But it was included against our wishes because it wasn't reliable.'"

    Gilligan went on to accuse the prime minister and his staff of having "spent the past few days denying claims that no one has ever actually made - that material in the dossier was invented".

    But he says they have failed to deny several of the claims the BBC's source had made, including the allegation that the dossier was rewritten the week before publication and that the line about the 45-minute deployment of weapons was inserted at a late stage.

    June 2
    What BBC's Newsnight reported

    The Newsnight science correspondent Susan Watts reports on a conversation she has had with "a senior official intimately involved with the process of pulling together the September dossier". The source claimed the intelligence services came under heavy political pressure over the evidence that Saddam's weapons of mass destruction could be ready for use within 45 minutes.

    June 3
    The government's reaction

    Dr John Reid, then the leader of the house, claims "rogue elements" in the security services were responsible for spreading falsehoods about alleged attempts by Downing Street to harden intelligence service reports, and so exaggerate the scale of the threat posed by Saddam Hussein.

    June 6
    What No 10 says

    Tony Blair's official spokesman uses his daily briefing to highlight what he claims are a series of inaccuracies in Gilligan's reports.

    June 8
    Gilligan in the Mail on Sunday again
    Gilligan once again uses his Mail on Sunday column to detail the unfolding row with the government, describing the day "Hurricane Alastair and tropical storm Tony blew into my life". He accuses Downing Street of briefing against him, and describes how Dr Reid "went into close air combat with my colleague John Humphrys to justify his conspiracy theory".

    June 19
    What Gilligan tells the Foreign Affairs select committee
    Gilligan gives his evidence to the Commons foreign affairs select committee investigating the decision to go to war with Iraq. In it, he describes his source as "one of the senior officials in charge of drawing up the dossier".

    "I can tell you that he is a source of long standing, well known to me, closely connected with the question of Iraq's weapons of mass destruction, easily sufficiently senior and credible to be worth reporting," he adds.

    June 25
    What Alastair Campbell said
    Relations between the BBC and the government hit a new low when Mr Campbell, No 10's communications director, speaks out publicly against Gilligan for the first time, effectively accusing the reporter of broadcasting "lies".

    During a three hour televised grilling by the Commons foreign affairs select committee, Mr Campbell says:

    "The allegation made by the BBC defence correspondent, repeated in large parts of the media here and other parts of the world, is that the prime minister put to the country and to parliament a false basis for putting at risk the lives of British servicemen.

    "That is an accusation against the prime minister, the foreign secretary, the cabinet, the intelligence agencies, against me and the people who work for me. That is why I take it so seriously."

    "I know we are right in relation to that 45-minute point. It is completely and totally untrue. It is - I don't use this word lightly - it is actually a lie. I simply say, in relation to the BBC story, it is a lie ... that is continually repeated, and until we get an apology for it I will keep making sure that parliament and people like yourselves know that it was a lie."

    The BBC hits back, saying it stands by Gilligan and his "senior and credible" intelligence source. "We do not feel the BBC has anything to apologise for," it says in a statement.

    June 26
    What Alastair Campbell demanded from the BBC
    Mr Campbell writes to the BBC demanding answers to 12 questions on the Gilligan affair by the end of the day. Richard Sambrook, the BBC's news director, responds with a statement saying: "We stand by our entire story. In my experience, this is an unprecedented level of pressure on the BBC from Downing Street. The BBC will respond properly to these matters, but not to a deadline dictated by Mr Campbell."

    Read Richard Sambrook's statement

    July 6
    BBC governors go on the offensive

    The BBC board of governors meets to discuss the growing row between the corporation and the government. At the end of the meeting it issues a statement defending Gilligan's report and calling on Mr Campbell to withdraw allegations of bias against the BBC and its journalists.

    "The board considers that the Today programme properly followed the BBC's producers' guidelines in its handling of the Andrew Gilligan report about the September intelligence dossier, which was broadcast on 29 May. Although the guidelines say that the BBC should be reluctant to broadcast stories based on a single source, and warn about the dangers of using anonymous sources, they clearly allow for this to be done in exceptional circumstances. Stories based on senior intelligence sources are a case in point," it said.

    "We note that an entirely separate story was broadcast by an unconnected BBC journalist on Newsnight on 2 June. This story reported very similar allegations to those reported by Andrew Gilligan on the Today programme, but the story has not been singled out for similar criticism by government spokesmen."

    Governors back BBC in row over Iraq dossier

    Full text of BBC governors' statement

    July 8
    Greg Dyke, BBC director general wades in
    At 10.15am: Greg Dyke speaks for the first time on the issue. He says the BBC will not be apologising and urges Alastair Campbell to bury the hatchet. He says the two sides will have "to agree to disagree". The BBC believes everyone will move on.

    Dyke urges Campbell to bury the hatchet

    The MoD "mole" At 5.55pm: The government reveals a staff member at the Ministry of Defence has come forward to admit he met Andrew Gilligan at a central London hotel before the war. The MoD does not know if this is Mr Gilligan's source, but says that it if is, then Gilligan has exaggerated the meeting's content.

    "The individual is an expert on WMD who has advised ministers on WMD and whose contribution to the dossier of September 2002 was to contribute towards drafts of historical accounts of UN inspections. He is not 'one of the senior officials in charge of drawing up the dossier'. He is not a member of the intelligence services or the defence intelligence staff," said the MoD.

    "He says that when Mr Gilligan asked about the role of Alastair Campbell with regard to the 45 minute issue, he made no comment and explained that he was not involved in the process of drawing up the intelligence parts of the dossier.

    "He says he made no other comment about Mr Campbell. When Mr Gilligan asked him why the 45 minute point was in the dossier, he says he commented that it was 'probably for impact'. He says he did not see the 45 minute intelligence report on which it was based. He has said that, as an expert in the field, he believes Saddam Hussein possessed WMD,"it added

    Read the MoD's full statement

    How the BBC responded
    "The description of the individual contained in the statement does not match Mr Gilligan's source in some important ways. Mr Gilligan's source does not work in the Ministry of Defence and he has known the source for a number of years, not months."

    Read the BBC's full statement

    July 9
    Defence minister gets his hands dirty
    Defence secretary Geoff Hoon names Dr David Kelly, a Ministry of Defence microbiologist and weapons consultant, in a letter to the BBC, asking the corporation to confirm or deny whether he is the source of Gilligan's story. The BBC dismisses the demand and says the situation is descending into farce. Although Dr Kelly's name has not been made public, in the course of the day lobby journalists become aware of his identity, and Downing Street confirms his name to the Times political reporting team. By 11.40pm, Dr Kelly has been named on the Press Association's newswire.

    Read the BBC's response to Hoon

    July 15
    MPs: Kelly is not the source
    Dr Kelly gives evidence to the foreign affairs select committee in which he denies that he was the main source for claims that Campbell "sexed up" the September dossier. MPs on the committee back him in a statement saying they do not believe he is the sole source and accuse the government of treating him as a "fall guy".

    Gerald Kaufman MP, the chair of the culture and media select committee, says Gilligan should be given a choice between writing for newspapers and magazines, including his columns for the Mail on Sunday and the Spectator, and continuing to work for the BBC. Gilligan stoked the row between the corporation and government by elaborating in his Mail on Sunday column on his report for the Today programme that Campbell intervened in the preparation of the September dossier to exaggerate the Iraqi weapons threat.

    July 16
    Blair demands naming of source
    Tony Blair again challenges the BBC to unmask the source of Gilligan's story, after Tory leader Iain Duncan Smith accused Blair and Campbell of creating a "culture of deceit" with their handling of issues such as the Iraq dossier row.

    July 17
    Dr Kelly disappears

    Dr Kelly tells his wife he is going out for a walk at 3pm. Although he is accustomed to walk for several hours at a time on the footpaths around his home in Abingdon, Oxfordshire, he is not dressed appropriately for the wet weather, dressed in just his shirt sleeves without a coat. When he fails to return home by 11.45pm his family contact the police.

    Gilligan questioned again
    MPs on the foreign affairs select committee accuse Gilligan of being an "unsatisfactory witness" who has changed his story that Campbell "sexed up" the September dossier.

    July 18
    Dr Kelly is reported missing by Thames Valley Police and a major search operation is launched in the vicinity of his home in Abingdon, Oxfordshire. The police say they are "very concerned for his wellbeing". Donald Anderson, the chairman of the foreign affairs committee, says he is "shocked" by the development.

    'I never want to hear that sound again'
    Audrey Gillan with the Household Cavalry in Iraq
    Monday March 31, 2003
    The Guardian

    Five British soldiers have died under 'friendly fire'. Yesterday as General Richard Myers apologised for the three deaths caused by the US, saying it would be his 'quest' to ensure it did not happen again, the first full account emerged of the tragic incident in which a A-10 tankbuster fired on two British armoured vehicles

    They will never forget the sound of the guns. A cross between a moan and a roar, a fierce rattling of heavy rounds of 30mm canon fire from two A10 Thunderbolts flying low overhead. Aircraft that shouldn't have been in the British-controlled area, "cowboying" at just 500ft and looking for something to have a crack at.

    Last Friday morning, two American pilots turned their guns on a convoy of five British vehicles from the Household Cavalry, killing one man just three days shy of his 26th birthday, injuring four others and wiping out two armoured reconnaissance vehicles from the squadron's Two Troop. Two Iraqi civilians, waving a large white flag, were also killed.

    Coloured smoke signs were sent up to indicate that they were friendly troops but it didn't stop the attack. The planes came back a second time, seriously injuring those who had managed to scramble out of their vehicles with only superficial wounds. The gunner, Corporal Matty Hull, however, was the victim of a direct hit into his gun turret.

    The men in the Scimitars were screaming over the radio "stop the friendly fire, we are being engaged by friendly fire" and "pop smoke, pop smoke". The forward air controller, who liaises with coalition air forces to bring in fire missions, was shouting "check fire, check fire". Frantic calls were made to 16 Air Assault Brigade headquarters to find out what was going on. But no one seemed to know.

    The A10s were about to take a third swing when they were told by the American air patroller working with the Household cavalry to stop firing.

    Instead of providing air cover while helicopters came in to evacuate the casualties, they baled out.

    The attack took place within the Household Cavalry's battlefield control line which means that everything in the air should be controlled by them and their embedded American air controller. The A10s were well out of their area and the matter is now being investigated amidst calls from some of the British troops that the pilots be prosecuted for manslaughter.

    So far in this conflict, Britain has suffered more casualties from friendly fire, five, than from assaults by the Iraqis.

    That morning's plan had been to use artillery, air and helicopter strikes against Iraqi positions in order to secure the area for future operations. D Squadron is an armoured reconnaissance unit and their job is to move in first and secure locations before other troops move in.

    You could hear the battle over the radio, with the guns rattling down the airwaves. The squadron leader's Spartan vehicle narrowly missed a hit by two mortars, a procedure known as bracketing. The whistling and explosion cannot be heard in these vehicles but the tremor of the earth could.

    The two Scimitars had been probing a road, checking for landmines, enemy locations, assault batteries.

    At this point, Two Troop was given orders to move forward. Squadron leader Richard Taylor said: "I remember saying 'move quickly through the urban area, as we will be vulnerable from civilians, make best speed, good luck'. I don't think I will be wishing anyone good luck again."

    Ears pricked up as shouting came over the radio. At first it seemed like someone had just lost their rag. Then the full horror dawned. One of the vehicles had been hit, no two, and by "friendly call signs".


    They stood still, stopping what they were doing. At first they thought it was one lad, then another. Whoever it was, it didn't ease the twist of knots that started knitting themselves in their stomachs. Later, they learned it was Matty Hull, who aside from being a gunner was also a military instructor who was being considered for a posting to Sandhurst to train officers.

    Amidst the grief, their anger could not be contained. All of D Squadron's vehicles are clearly marked, with fluorescent panels on the roofs, flags and other markings. It was something that the soldiers kept saying, over and over. "We spend all this money marking out our vehicles so this doesn't happen," one said. "If it was the heat of battle, shit happens. But it was clear daylight."

    Another said: "As far as I am concerned, those two pilots should be done for manslaughter. There's no way on the planet that they couldn't see two vehicles, that they couldn't see the dayglo panel on the top."

    Trooper Joe Woodgate, 19, the driver of the Scimitar in which Cpl Hull was killed, walked away with holes in his bulletproof vest and a tear in either side of his shirtsleeve where shrapnel entered and exited, without touching his arm. All the rest of his colleagues had to be evacuated to the hospital ship Argos.

    "We were given this mission to go along and clear one of the furthest routes, a road running along between the river Euphrates and this village. We knew it was going to be pretty hairy because we had been bombing the shit out of the Iraqis all day," he said.

    "I was moving along and for some reason, the wagon just stopped dead and these two massive sparks came flying into my cab. I turned round and the turret was just a well of fire behind me. There was fire everywhere. I tried to get out and my hatch was jammed. I was banging away at it for what seemed like a lifetime but it was probably only a few seconds. As soon as I saw the fire, I thought 'get the fuck out of here'. I managed to get out and rolled on the floor. I didn't realise that it was the Americans that had hit us.

    "I remember seeing the front wagon which had been hit and I remember seeing the people getting out of that and running for cover. I thought there must be ground troops coming to get us. I went pegging it after them and jumped in a ditch. That was when the American plane came round to do a second swoop on us. That fucking gun, I don't want to ever hear that again. It's like a cross between a moan and a roar it's that fast.

    "Chris Finney helped people get out of the wagon, he was amazing. I didn't know what was going on at that point. We were in this ditch and I still didn't realise it was Americans. I didn't realise that Matty was still in the turret. So we ran back over to the wagons. The engineers who had been in our convoy were there helping with the casualties and getting them into their Spartan while they were under fire.

    "By all accounts, I found Finney and he had a shrapnel wound all up his arse. Gerry knew exactly what needed to be done. I remember seeing him stand up and wave his arms in the air, trying to get these planes to stop.

    "When I got out, I thought Matty had got out as well but when I was pegging it off after Gerry, I thought where's Matty and I looked behind me and the fucking wagon was just a mess man. It's weird because you are thinking, maybe if I had done things differently... I don't know why Matty couldn't get out. People said they remember hearing him on the radio but I don't remember a thing. In hindsight, you always think there's something else you could have done.

    "I went back there on Saturday when they went to recover the vehicles and Matty's body but I wasn't allowed out of the vehicle until they held a service for him. Part of me thinks, I have already cheated death and I may be tempting fate by staying out here but they have moved me to squadron headquarters because I don't have a vehicle to drive anymore and I should be safe here."

    The Scimitar was so badly ablaze it was still smoking the following morning, the palls of gray in the eyeline of every member of D Squadron. Fully loaded with ammunition, it had become an exploding tinderbox. Much of it, including its gun turret and its tracks, had melted.

    The troops could do nothing but evacuate the casualties and leave the gunner's body behind. When daylight came, the squadron leader, a padre and a number of the troops returned to the scene to bring the body out. Chemical warfare suits had to be worn because of the threat from the depleted uranium used in the American weapons. A remembrance service yesterday was interrupted by the thuds of incoming Iraqi artillery and the padre saying, "and the Lord said, oh, that was a bit close, get down".

    Afterwards, squadron leader Taylor said: "Militarily, it was a very successful operation that was marred by the tragic events that led to friendly fire casualties. To Mrs Hull, I would like to say that the hearts of the squadron are very much with her and her family today. Her husband did not die in vain. He was an immaculately professional soldier. He was highly regarded and immensely popular within the regiment, he will always be remembered for his smiley face and professional manner."

    Trooper Joe Woodgate said. "I can't stop thinking about him. I can't stop thinking about how he died. He has a wife and everything. In a way I think it is unfair that he had to go and I got out."

    In Memoriam

    Casualties as of March 31, 2002

    March 29:

    Marine Staff Sgt. James Cawley, 41, Layton, Utah, combat

    Army Cpl. Michael Curtin, 23, Howell, N.J., suicide attack

    Army Pfc. Diego Fernando Rincon, 19, Conyers, Ga., suicide attack

    Army Pfc. Michael Russell Creighton Weldon, 20, Palm Bay, Fla., suicide attack

    Marine Lance Cpl. William W. White, 24, New York City, vehicle accident

    Army Sgt. Eugene Williams, 24, Highland, N.Y, suicide attack

    March 28:

    Army Sgt. Roderic A. Solomon , 32, Fayetteville, N.C., vehicle accident

    March 27:

    Marine Gunnery Sgt. Joseph Menusa, 33, Tracy, Calif., combat

    Marine Lance Cpl. Jesus A. Suarez Del Solar, 20, Escondido, Calif., combat

    March 26:

    Marine Maj. Kevin G. Nave, 36, White Lake Township, Mich., vehicle accident

    March 25:

    Navy Hospital Corpsman 3rd Class Michael Vann Johnson Jr., 25, Little Rock, Ark., combat

    Marine Staff Sgt. Donald C. May, Jr., 31, Richmond, Va.

    Marine Lance Cpl. Patrick T. O'Day, 20, Santa Rosa, Calif.

    Air Force Maj. Gregory Stone, 40, Boise, Idaho, grenade attack

    March 24:

    Marine Cpl. Evan James, 20, La Harpe, Ill., drowned in canal

    Marine Sgt. Bradley S. Korthaus, 29, Davenport, Iowa, drowned in canal

    Army Spc. Gregory P. Sanders, 19, Hobart, Ind., combat

    March 23:

    Army Spc. Jamaal R. Addison, 22, Roswell, Ga., combat

    Marine Sgt. Michael E. Bitz, 31, Ventura, Calif., combat

    Marine Lance Cpl. Brian Rory Buesing, 20, Cedar Key, Fla., combat

    Marine Lance Cpl. David K. Fribley, 26, Fort Myers, Fla., combat

    Marine Cpl. Jose A. Garibay, 21, Costa Mesa, Calif., combat

    Marine Cpl. Jorge A. Gonzalez, 20, Los Angeles, combat

    Army Pfc. Howard Johnson II, 21, Mobile, Ala., combat

    Marine Staff Sgt. Phillip A. Jordan, 42, Enfield, Conn., combat

    Marine Lance Cpl. Patrick R. Nixon, 21, Gallatin, Tenn., combat

    Marine 2nd Lt. Frederick E. Pokorney Jr., 31, Tonopah, Nev., combat

    Marine Cpl. Randal Kent Rosacker, 21, San Diego, combat

    Marine Lance Cpl. Thomas J. Slocum, 22, Thornton, Colo., combat

    Marine Lance Cpl. Michael J. Williams, 31, Yuma, Ariz.

    March 22:

    Navy Lt. Thomas Mullen Adams, 27, La Mesa, Calif., helicopter collision

    Marine Lance Cpl. Eric J. Orlowski, 26, Buffalo, N.Y., machine gun accident

    Army Capt. Christopher Scott Seifert, 27, Easton, Pa., grenade attack

    Army Reserve Spc. Brandon S. Tobler, 19, Portland, Ore., vehicle accident

    March 21:

    Marine Maj. Jay Thomas Aubin, 36, Waterville, Maine, helicopter crash

    Marine Capt. Ryan Anthony Beaupre, 30, St. Anne, Ill., helicopter crash

    Marine 2nd Lt. Therrel S. Childers, 30, Harrison County, Miss., combat

    Marine Lance Cpl. Jose Gutierrez, 22, Los Angeles, combat

    Marine Cpl. Brian Matthew Kennedy, 25, Houston, helicopter crash

    Marine Staff Sgt. Kendall Damon Waters-Bey, 29, Baltimore, helicopter crash

    Date not given:

    Marine Sgt. Nicolas M. Hodson, 22, Smithville, Mo., vehicle accident

    Marine Lance Cpl. Thomas A. Blair, 24, Broken Arrow, Okla., combat


    March 24:

    Army Chief Warrant Officer 2 Ronald D. Young Jr., 26, Lithia Springs, Ga.

    Army Chief Warrant Officer 2 David S. Williams, 30, Orlando, Fla.

    March 23:

    Army Spc. Edgar Hernandez, 21, Mission, Texas

    Army Spc. Joseph Hudson, 23, Alamogordo, N.M.

    Army Spc. Shoshana Johnson, 30, Fort Bliss, Texas

    Army Pfc. Patrick Miller, 23, Park City, Kan.

    Army Sgt. James Riley, 31, Pennsauken, N.J.


    March 23:

    Army Sgt. Edward J. Anguiano, 24, Brownsville, Texas.

    Marine Pfc. Tamario D. Burkett, 21, Buffalo, N.Y.

    Marine Cpl. Kemaphoom A. Chanawongse, 22, Waterford, Conn.

    Marine Lance Cpl. Donald J. Cline, Jr., 21, Sparks, Nev.

    Army Master Sgt. Robert J. Dowdy, 38, Cleveland

    Army Pvt. Ruben Estrella-Soto, 18, El Paso, Texas

    Marine Pvt. Jonathan L. Gifford, 30, Decatur, Ill.

    Marine Pvt. Nolen R. Hutchings, 19, Boiling Springs, S.C.

    Army Spc. James Kiehl, 22, Comfort, Texas

    *Army Pfc. Jessica Lynch, 19, Palestine, W.Va.
    *Note, Pfc  Jessica Lynch was rescued on April 1, 2003 from her captors.
    Private Lynch has two broken legs, a broken arm and multiple
     gunshot wounds, but she is said to be in a stable
    condition. She is receiving treatment in hospital.
    Marine Pfc. Francisco A. MartinezFlores, 21, Los Angeles

    Army Chief Warrant Officer Johnny Villareal Mata, 35, El Paso, Texas

    Marine Sgt. Fernando Padilla-Ramirez, 26, Yuma, Ariz.

    Army Pfc. Lori Piestewa, 22, Tuba City, Ariz.

    Marine Sgt. Brendon Reiss, 23, originally from Casper, Wyo.

    Army Pvt. Brandon Sloan, 19, Bedford Heights, Ohio

    Army Sgt. Donald Walters, 33, Salem, Ore.




    March 30:

    Marine Christopher R. Maddison, combat in southern Iraq.

    Lance Cpl. Shaun Andrew Brierley, road accident in Kuwait.

    March 28:

    Lance Cpl. Matty Hull, in combat in southern Iraq; death is being investigated possibly as result of friendly fire

    March 25:

    Cpl. Stephen John Allbutt, Stoke-on-Trent, England, tank hit by friendly fire

    Trooper David Jeffrey Clarke, Littleworth, England, tank hit by friendly fire

    March 24:

    Sgt. Steven Mark Roberts, Bradford, England, combat

    Lance Cpl. Barry Stephen, Perth, Scotland, combat

    March 23:

    Sapper Luke Allsopp, London, combat

    Staff Sgt. Simon Cullingworth, Essex, England, combat

    Flight Lt. Kevin Barry Main, jet shot down by friendly fire

    Flight Lt. David Rhys Williams, jet shot down by friendly fire

    March 22:

    Lt. Philip Green, helicopter collision

    Lt. Marc Lawrence, helicopter collision

    Lt. Antony King, Helston, England, helicopter collision

    Lt. Philip West, Budock Water, England, helicopter collision

    Lt. James Williams, Falmouth, England, helicopter collision

    Lt. Andrew Wilson, helicopter collision

    March 21:

    Color Sgt. John Cecil, Plymouth, England, helicopter crash

    Lance Bombardier Llewelyn Karl Evans, Llandudno, Wales, helicopter crash

    Capt. Philip Stuart Guy, helicopter crash

    Marine Sholto Hedenskog, helicopter crash

    Sgt. Les Hehir, Poole, England, helicopter crash

    Operator Mechanic Second Class Ian Seymour, helicopter crash

    Warrant Officer Second Class Mark Stratford, helicopter crash

    Maj. Jason Ward, helicopter crash